= Tetanurae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Passer domesticus <- Torvosaurus tanneri) (modified)
Reference- Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.

Avetheropoda Paul, 1988
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Padian et al., 1999; modified from Currie and Padian, 1997)
= Dinoaves Bakker, 1986
= Tetanurae sensu Novas, 1992
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (modified)
= Neotetanurae Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Duthell and Sues, 1994
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (Allain et al., 2012; modified from Sereno, 1998)
Other definitions- (Sinraptor dongi + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus + Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus) (Sereno, in press)
= Neotetanurae sensu Sereno, in press
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus + Allosaurus fragilis + Passer domesticus)
= Euavetheropoda Sorkin, 2015
Comments- Bakker (1986) used the name Dinoaves in a phylogenetic tree for a clade containing allosaurs and what are now considered coelurosaurs, but not ceratosaurs or podokesaurs (coelophysoids). It has not been used since and could equally well apply to Tetanurae. Paul (1988) first used Avetheropoda as an order containing allosaurids (including carcharodontosaurids) and all taxa now placed in Coelurosauria, but not metriacanthosaurines (sinraptorids), megalosauroids and more basal taxa. It was too largely ignored until Holtz (1994) used it for an equivalent clade. Sereno proposed Neotetanurae for the same clade that year and both names have since received equally frequent use (e.g. 54 Google Scholar hits for Avetheropoda vs. 56 for Neotetanurae as of 1-15-2012). Sorkin (2015) proposed the name Euavetheropoda in an abstract, for a clade containing Monolophosaurus, acrocanthosaurids, allosaurids and coelurosaurs. It is uncertain if this is based on an analysis, and such a clade excluding metriacanthosaurids, Neovenator, carcharodontosaurines and megaraptorans has not been recovered in other studies.
Sereno's newest (in press) definition of Neotetanurae differs from the original (Sereno, 1998) by adding Sinraptor and Carcharodontosaurus as internal specifiers. I suppose it would preserve content better if sinraptorids or carcharodontosaurids end up just basal to carnosaurs + coelurosaurs (Paul, 1988; Coria and Salgado, 1995; Longrich, 2001; Paul, 2002). However, if carcharodontosaurids are ceratosaurs (Bonaparte et al., 1990) or sinraptorids are megalosaurids (Kurzanov, 1989), the original intent of Neotetanurae would be lost. The latter two situations seem less likely than the former, so Sereno's redefinition may be more advantageous than not.
While found in nearly every analysis, recent work suggests Avetheropoda as currently conceived may not exist, with megalosauroids actually being carnosaurs so that Avetheropoda includes the current content of Orionides. This can be found in Rauhut (2003) and Cau's unpublished work, while Carrano et al. (2012) find it in their trees with only two more steps.
References- Bakker, 1986. The Dinosaur Heresies. Kensington, New York. 481 pp.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Kurzanov, 1989. O proiskhozhdenii i evolyutsii infraotryada dinozavrov Carnosauria [Concerning the origin and evolution of the dinosaur infraorder Carnosauria]. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal. 1989(4), 3-14.
Bonaparte, Novas and Coria, 1990. Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, the horned, lightly built carnosaur from the Middle Cretaceous of Patagonia. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Contributions in Science. 416, 41 pp.
Holtz, 1994. The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: Implications for theropod systematics. Journal of Paleontology. 68(5), 1100-1117.
Novas, 1992. La evolucion de los dinosaurios carnivoros [The evolution of carnivorous dinosaurs]. In Sanz and Buscalioni (eds.). Los Dinosaurios y Su Entorno Biotico: Actas del Segundo Curso de Paleontologia in Cuenca. Instituto "Juan Valdez", Cuenca, Argentina. 126-163.
Sereno, Wilson, Larsson, Dutheil and Sues, 1994. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Sahara. Science. 266, 267-271.
Coria and Salgado, 1995. A new giant carnivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature. 377, 224-226.
Currie and Padian, 1997. Avetheropoda. In Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, New York. 39.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Padian, Hutchinson and Holtz, 1999. Phylogenetic definitions and nomenclature of the major taxonomic categories of the carnivorous Dinosauria (Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(1), 69-80.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD Thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Longrich, 2001. Secondarily flightless maniraptoran theropods? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 74A.
Paul, 2002. Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 472 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Allain, Xaisanavong, Richir and Khentavong, 2012. The first definitive Asian spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Laos. Naturwissenschaften. 99(5), 369-377.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Sorkin, 2015. A re-evaluation of several character states in non-coelurosaurian Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with implications for phylogeny of basal tetanurans. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2015, 217.

Datanglong Mo, Zhou, Li, Huang and Cao, 2014
D. guangxiensis Mo, Zhou, Li, Huang and Cao, 2014
Aptian?, Early Cretaceous
Xinlong Formation, Guangxi, China

Holotype- (GMG 00001) (adult) partial thirteenth dorsal vertebra (~130 mm), incomplete synsacrum (94, 78, 93, 113, 106 mm), incomplete first caudal vertebra (~96 mm), incomplete second caudal vertebra, incomplete first chevron, incomplete ilium (~700 mm), pubic fragment, proximal ischium
Diagnosis- (after Mo et al., 2014) thirteenth dorsal vertebra with teardrop-shaped foramen bordered by centrum, anterior centroparapophyseal and posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae; thirteenth dorsal vertebra with well developed horizontal prezygoparapophyseal lamina; thirteenth dorsal vertebra with parapophysis projecting further laterally than diapophysis; brevis fossa shallow with short, ridge-like medial blade; iliac pubic peduncle with posteroventrally expanded margin.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 2011. Mo et al. (2014) included it in Carrano et al.'s tetanurine analysis and found it to be a carcharodontosaurid outside Megaraptora and Acrocanthosaurus+Shaochilong+Carcharodontosaurinae. Cau (online, 2014) noted this analysis only includes a few coelurosaurs, and found that Datanglong emerges as a compsognathid-grade coelurosaur. If more coelurosaurs are added to the Carrano tetanurine dataset, I find both positions to be equally parsimonious. It is thus retained as Avetheropoda incertae sedis here pending further study.
References- Cau, online 2014. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2014/08/datanglong-un-nuovo-carcharodontosauria.html
Mo, Zhou, Li, Huang and Cao, 2014. A new Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous of Guangxi, Southern China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition). 88(4), 1051-1059.

"Tyrannosaurus" "lanpingensis" Ye, 1975
= Tyrannosaurus "lanpingi" Zhao, 1986
= Tarbosaurus "lanpinensis" (Ye, 1975) Azuma 1991
Valanginain-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Jingxing (=Chingshong) Formation, Yunnan, China

Material- (IVPP coll.) partial tooth (FABL ~32 mm)
Comments- Ye (often cited as Yeh) first mentioned Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis in 1975 as a new species from the IVPP that had not been published. Zhao (1986) provides a photo of the basal half of a tooth, crediting the name Tyrannosaurus "lanpingi" to himself (as Chao). In the plate's caption, he lists it as being from the Early Cretaceous Jingxing Formation of Lanping, Yunnan. Azuma (1991) listed "Tarbosaurus lanpinensis(?)" as a tyrannosaurid from the Tugulu Group of China, citing Dong (1992, which was in press at the time). Dong (1992) discusses it as Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis, mistakenly attributing the name to Zhao, 1983. In Appendix A, Dong lists it as a tyrannosaurid named Tarbosaurus (Tyrannosaurus) lanpinensis (no doubt a misspelling, which Azuma's was based on), and mistakenly attributes it to Chao, 1975. In Appendix C, it is Tarbosaurus (Tyrannosaurus) lanpingensis. Dong states it is from the Chingshong Formation of Lanping County in Yunnan, which he attributes to Tithonian-Neocomian age based on bivalves. He says the species is based on a single tooth without diagnosis or drawing, so is a nomen nudum, but Zhao (1986) did illustrate it. Ford and Chure misspelled it as Tyrannosaurus langingi, credited to Zhao (1986), in an unpublished list based on their 2001 SVP abstract. They have it as from the Upper Chingshing Formation, which they attribute to Berriasian-Hauterivian. Hurum and Sabath (2003) list "Tyrannosaurus lanpingensis" as a tyrannosaurid, citing Ye. Azuma et al. (2006) lists "Tyrannosaurus" lanpingensis from the Chingshong Formation. The formation is almost always called the Jingxing Formation, and is agreed by modern paleontologists to be Valanginian-Barremian (e.g. Sha, 2010).
The photo is the basal half of a tooth crown in labial view, and has a FABL of ~32 mm. Only distal serrations are evident, which are small (8 per 5 mm) and have apically angled blood grooves. The size and serration density fall within the range of Tyrannosaurus rex, but also Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. Angled blood grooves are known for tyrannosaurids and Carcharodontosaurus, but also taxa like Fukuiraptor. Importantly, there seem to be prominent enamel wrinkles along the distal carina. These are almost never found in tyrannosauroids, but are known in derived carcharodontosaurids, Allosaurus and Fukuiraptor. As "lanpingensis" is from the Early Cretaceous, it's more likely to be a megaraptoran or carcharodontosaurid than an allosaurid or tyrannosaurine. Both are clades known from large taxa (Chilantaisaurus; Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus) and both are known from Asia (Chilantaisaurus, Fukuiraptor; Shaochilong). Until more details are known, I recommend placing "lanpingensis" in Avetheropoda indet..
References- Ye, 1975. Jurassic system. In Su (ed.). Mesozoic Redbeds of Yunnan. Academia Sinica, Beijing. 11-30.
Zhao, 1986. The Cretaceous biota of China: Reptilia. in Hao, Su, Yu, Li, Li, Wang, Qi, Guan, Hu, Liu, Yang, Ye, Shou, Zhang, et al.. The Cretaceous System of China. Stratigraphy of China. 12, 67-73, plates XI, XII.
Azuma, 1991. Early Cretaceous dinosaur fauna from the Tetori Group Central Japan- Research of dinosaurs from the Tetori Group (1). Professor Shizuka Miura Memorial Volume. Fukui University, Fukui, Japan. 55-69.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong: Springer-Verlag. 188 pp.
Ford and Chure, 2001. Ghost lineages and the paleogeographic and temporal distribution of tyrannosaurids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 50A-51A.
Hurum and Sabath, 2003. Giant theropod dinosaurs from Asia and North America: Skulls of Tarbosaurus bataar and Tyrannosaurus rex compared. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 48(2), 161-190.
Azuma, Li, Currie, Dong, Shibata and Lu, 2006. Dinosaur footprints from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. Memior of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. 5, 1-14.
Sha, 2010. Historical distribution patterns of trigonioidids (non-marine Cretaceous bivalves) in Asia and their palaeogeographic significance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 277(1679), 277-283.

"Unquillosauridae" Powell, 1986
Unquillosaurus Powell, 1979
U. ceibalii Powell, 1979
Campanian, Late Cretaceous
Los Blanquitos Formation, Salta, Argentina

Holotype- (PVL 3670-11) ilial fragment, pubis (514 mm)
Description- Novas and Agnolin (2004) determined the supposedly diagnostic proximal sulcus noted by Powel (1979) doesn't exist, and is actually the pubic peduncle of the ilium broken and displaced. This allowed them to identify a ventrally concave pubic peduncle, and the angle between the anterior and ventral edges supports opisthopuby. What's normally seen as the acetabular surface of the pubis is the posterior part of a very long ilial peduncle, leaving a very tiny space for the acetabulum, which is said to resemble maniraptoriformes. These characters support placement in Maniraptora.
Comments- While the family Unquillosauridae was apparently named by Powell in his thesis, the ICZN does not accept theses as valid for nomenclatural purposes, so it is a nomen nudum.
In 1997, Ford suggested on the DML that Unquillosaurus was similar to Unenlagia, which has gone so far as to prompt discussion of synonymy. However, Unquillosaurus is not synonymous with Unenlagia. First, I should note the pubis was described incorrectly, the medial side being lateral and vice versa (as later determined by Carrano et al., 2012). The supposed "lateral crest" is really the pubic apron, the "lateral" facets on the pubic boot are really for the pubic symphysis. Compared to Unenlagia- the pubis is more propubic; the ischial peduncle is longer; there was an obturator notch; the shaft is anteroposteriorly thicker distally; the pubic boot projects slightly anteriorly; there is a proximomedial sulcus; the ilial peduncle is less transversly expanded; the pelvic canal is narrower; the proximal shaft expands laterally; the distal end is expanded transversely, not compressed; there is a gap in the symphysis proximal to the pubic boot. Also keep in mind Unquillosaurus is from the Los Blanquitos Formation, while Unenlagia is from the Rio Neuquen Formation.
Novas and Agnolin (2004) keep Powell's orientation, remarking on the "prominent external longitudinal ridge" (=pubic apron?), odd medially convex pelvic canal margins (concave if reversed) and lack of an apron or medial symphysis. In addition, the medial end is described as "flattened and lacks marks for the articulation with the opposite bone". I see no reason to doubt the hypothesis they have the pubis reversed.
Novas and Agnolin refer to Maniraptora, while Carrano et al. suggest it is a carcharodontosaurid. It is at least an avetheropod due to lacking an obturator foramen.
References- Powell, 1979. Sobre una asociacion de dinosaurios y otras evidencias de vertebrados del Cretacico superior de la region de La Candelaria, Prov. de Salta, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 16, 191-204.
Powell, 1986. Revision de los titanosauridos de America del Sur Argentina. PhD thesis. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina. 340 pp.
Novas and Agnolin, 2004. Unquillosaurus ceibalii Powell, a giant maniraptoran (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, nuevo serie. 6(1), 61-66.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed possible avetheropod (Janensch, 1925)
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Material- (MBR 3628; = St 233) ilium (537 mm)
Comments- Rauhut (2011) found this to be most similar to megalosauroids, except for the cuppedicus fossa which is like some ceratosaurs and avetheropods. It is not coelurosaurian however. Carrano et al. (2012) stated the transverse pubic peduncle compression (~2 times long as wide) is like allosaurians and suggested it was carcharodontosaurian based on the more vertical pubic peduncle orientation, but the peduncle is only 1.78 times longer than wide and a ventrally projecting pubic peduncle is shared with almost all neotheropods in their matrix. When entered into Carrano et al.'s matrix, MBR 3628 emerges as a non-allosauroid avetheropod excluded from Proceratosaurus+Ornitholestes+Compsognathus.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed possible avetheropod (Hu, 1963)
Late Valanginian-Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Jehol Group, Liaoning, China
Material
- (IVPP V2756) partial mid caudal vertebra, proximal tibia, distal phalanx
Comments- Hu (1963) assigned this to Megalosauridae indet., but Carrano et al. (2012) believed the small lateral condyle was more similar to allosaurians and coelurosaurs. They stated it may belong to the latter clade. Additionally, I note the distally restricted fibular crest is like Cristatusaurus, Torvosaurus, allosaurians and coelurosaurs.
References- Hu, 1963. [The carnivorous dinosaurian remains from Fusin, Liaoning]. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 7, 174-176.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed avetheropod (Turner, Hwang and Norell, 2007)
Berriasian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Huhteeg Svita, Mongolia
Holotype
- (IGM coll.) postorbital (60 mm)
Comments- The heavily rugose texture and straight anterior process suggest assignment to Carnosauria or Tyrannosauroidea.
Reference- Turner, Hwang and Norell, 2007. A small derived theropod from Oosh, Early Cretaceous, Baykhangor Mongolia. American Museum Novitates. 3557, 27 pp.

unnamed avetheropod (Forster, Farke, McCartney, De Klerk and Ross, 2009)
Berriasian-Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Kirkwood Formation, South Africa
Material
- (AM 6041) proximal femur
Comments- Forster et al. (2009) referred this to non-avetheropod Tetanurae because of its anteriorly angled head, but Carrano et al. (2012) noted this is also present in some carnosaurs, and that the lack of an articular groove and presence of an accessory trochanter were avetheropod characters. They thus referred it to Carnosauria, but did not realize basal coelurosaurs like Tugulusaurus have anteriorly angled heads as well.
References- De Klerk, Forster, Sampson, Chinsamy-Turan and Ross, 2000. A new coelurosaurian dinosaur from the early Cretaceous of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(2), 324-332.
Forster, Farke, McCartney, De Klerk and Ross, 2009. A "basal" tetanuran from the Lower Cretaceous Kirkwood Formation of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(1), 283-285.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

unnamed Avetheropoda (Benson, Rich, Vickers-Rich and Hall, 2012)
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Wonthoggi Formation of the Strzelecki Group, Victoria, Australia
Material
- (NMV P186057) incomplete ilium
(NMV P186327) partial coracoid
Reference- Benson, Rich, Vickers-Rich and Hall, 2012. Theropod fauna from Southern Australia indicates high polar diversity and climate-driven dinosaur provinciality. PLoS ONE. 7(5), e37122.

Carnosauria Huene, 1920
Definition-
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Holtz and Padian, 1995)
= Allosauroidea sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Passer domesticus) (modified)
= "Yangchuanosauria" Longrich, 2002
Definition- (Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis <- Passer domesticus) (modified from Longrich, 2002)
References- Huene, 1920. Bemerkungen zur Systematik und Stammesgeschichte einiger Reptilien [Remarks on the systematics and phylogeny of some reptiles]. Zeitschrift für Induktive Abstammungs und Vererbungslehre. 22, 209-212.
Holtz and Padian, 1995. Definition and diagnosis of Theropoda and related taxa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 15(3), 35A.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Longrich, 2002. Systematics of Sinosauropteryx. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 80A.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.

Allosauroidea
Marsh, 1878 vide Currie and Zhao, 1994
Definition-
(Allosaurus fragilis + Sinraptor dongi) (Holtz et al., 2004; modified from Padian and Hutchinson, 1997)
Other definitions- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008; modified from Sereno, 1998)
Comments- Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994.
References- Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. American Journal of Science and Arts. 15, 241-244.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30(10), 2037-2081.
Padian and Hutchinson, 1997. Allosauroidea. In Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, New York. 6-9.
Sereno, 1998. A rationale for phylogenetic definitions, with application to the higher-level taxonomy of Dinosauria. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 210(1), 41-83.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. Phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda: New analysis, comparisons, and sources of disagreement. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 54A.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2008. Phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda): Comparative analysis and resolution. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6(2), 155-182.
Bates, Benson and Peter, 2010. The evolution of body size, stance and gait in Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 58A.

Erectopodidae Huene, 1932
Erectopus Huene, 1923
E. superbus (Sauvage, 1882a) Huene, 1923
= Megalosaurus superbus Sauvage, 1882a
= gen. indet. superbus (Sauvage, 1882a) Huene, 1932
= Erectopus sauvagei Huene, 1932
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Sables verts, Meuse, France

Lectotype- (MNHN 2001-4) anterior maxilla
'Plastotype'- (MNHN 2001-4; holotype of Erectopus sauvagei) incomplete phalanx I-1 (55 mm), partial manual ungual I, incomplete phalanx II-I (28 mm), phalanx II-2 (28 mm), partial manual ungual II, distal metacarpal III, phalanx III-1 (25 mm), proximal phalanx III-2, femur (480 mm), proximal tibia, distal tibia, calcaneum, metatarsal II (230 mm)
Paralectotypes- (lost) teeth, dorsal centra (53, 56, 62, 65, 65 mm), dorsal rib fragments, sacral fragment, proximal caudal vertebra (58 mm), distal caudal vertebra (75 mm), neural spine fragments, distal radius(?), distal ulna(?), metacarpal I (45 mm), phalanx I-1 (45 mm), metacarpal IV, partial ilium, proximal fibulae, phalanx IV-? (30 mm)
Referred- (SV2) distal tibia (Buffetaut and Nori, 2012)
(SV3) incomplete metatarsal III (Buffetaut and Nori, 2012)
?(SV4) tooth (37.7x18.6x10.3 mm) (Buffetaut and Nori, 2012)
?(SV5) tooth (62.8x21.8x12.4 mm) (Buffetaut and Nori, 2012)
?(SV6) tooth (25x?x8.5 mm) (Buffetaut and Nori, 2012)
Comments- Barrois (1875) and Sauvage (1876) described a tooth from Louppy-le-Chateau and other remains (two teeth and a centrum from Grandpre) as Megalosaurus. Sauvage (1882a) later briefly described a partial skeleton which is the type of his new species Megalosaurus superbus, associated with a larger distal femur. He described the skeleton, distal femur and other remains later that year (1882b), believing the previously known teeth from Louppy and Grandpre to come from the same species. Huene (1923; and later in 1926a, b) separated it from Megalosaurus as the new genus Erectopus superbus. Sauvage did not designate any material as a holotype, and it is not certain it all derives from one individual. In particular, the larger distal femur was found in the same area, and the teeth were discovered before the partial skeleton in a potentially different area. Huene (1932) incorrectly believed Sauvage based the name superbus on the original teeth, and as he thought these were too large to go with the postcrania, he separated the latter as Erectopus sauvagei. However, there is no evidence Sauvage intended to base superbus on the teeth, and the fact he waited until describing the postcrania in 1882 to name the species suggests the opposite. Furthermore, Allain (2005) correctly notes the original teeth match the preserved maxillary teeth in size. Huene retained the teeth as gen. indet. superbus, which he believed was an allosaurid in contrast to Erectopus, which he placed in a monotypic new family. Allain made the maxillary fragment the lectotype of Erectopus superbus, as the rest of the material is lost (though some elements are preserved as casts to form a plastotype). As the tooth matches that on the lectotype, and the rest of the specimen is no more certainly associated than the maxilla and tooth are with it, there is no reason to separate the tooth from the postcrania taxonomically. Notably, the ICZN does not allow a species to lack a genus, and the genus Erectopus must be attached to the species superbus based on Huene (1923), regardless which elements each name is based on. Erectopus sauvagei is thus an objective junior synonym of Erectopus superbus.
Several elements have been reidentified since Sauvage's (1882a, b) description. The posterior mandible is an anterior maxilla (Allain, 2005).The clavicle was reidentified as a scapula (Huene, 1926a, b), but is a partial ilium (Chure, 2000). The "inferior" (=proximal?) radius is a distal tibia (Huene, 1926a, b). Huene (1926a, b) identified two supposed proximal metacarpals as a distal radius and ulna, though as these were never illustrated this is uncertain. Manual digits II-IV are I-III, and phalanges II-2 and II-3 are actually just I-2 (the ungual). Similarly, phalanges III-3 and III-4 are just II-3 (the ungual). The supposed manual phalanx III-1 of Sauvage and Chure (?-1 of Huene) is more probably the other phalanx I-1 as it is too long for III-1, and too broad for digit III. Sauvage identified an element as the lateralmost metacarpal, which would be V in his reconstruction, but which is probably IV (considered a lateral manual phalanx by Chure, 2000). The questionably referred manual phalanx of Sauvage and pedal phalanx I-1 of Huene is metacarpal I (Molnar, 1990). The distal fibulae are proximal fibulae (Huene, 1926a, b).
Not Erectopus- Several other European remains have been referred to Erectopus or Megalosaurus superbus in the past. Sauvage (1882b) thought the tooth from Louppy and two teeth from Grandpre described by Barrois (1875) and Sauvage (1876) belonged to his new species Megalosaurus superbus. A distal metatarsal and a proximal metapodial from Grandpre were also described, the latter of which Huene (1926a, b) believed was a distal fibula. Sauvage also referred a much larger distal femur from Louppy to Megalosaurus superbus, though Huene (1926a, b) believed it to derive from a different taxon. Also figured by Sauvage is a large pedal phalanx from Bar-le-Duc, while he mentions another large pedal phalanx from an unstated locality.
Simionescu (1913) compared a tooth (UAIC (SCM1) 615) from the Valanginian Cernavoda Formation of Romania to Megalosaurus superbus. Huene (1926) doubted it was the same species due to age differences, but did continue to call it Erectopus aff. superbus. It was recently redescribed by Csiki-Sava et al. (2016) as a carcharodontosaurine.
Huene (1926a) referred a centrum from Grandpre described as Megalosaurus by Sauvage (1876) to Erectopus superbus. Similarly, he referred a distal femur from Blacourt described as dinosaurian by Sauvage (1876) to E. superbus, but Chure (2000) determined it is crocodilian.
Stromer (1934) referred a proximal tibia, distal femur and distal tibia (IPHG 1912 VIII 78, 85 and 190) from the Cenomanian Baharija Formation of Egypt to aff. Erectopus superbus, but none are similar to that genus.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski (1957) referred two tooth fragments from the Aptian of Portugal to Megalosaurus superbus, but these are undiagnostic.
Relationships- Allain (2002a, b) found Erectopus to emerge as a carnosaur in an unpublished phylogenetic analysis based on his thesis, which was also the conclusion of his 2005 redescription of the material. This was based solely on the interpretation of the distal tibia as indicating a well developed posterior astragalar ascending process. However, a similar morphology is also seen in the tibia of Poekilopleuron, which lacks a posterior ascending process. Carrano et al. (2012) suggest Erectopus is a non-carcharodontosaurid allosauroid, possibly a metriacanthosaurid, though they did not include it in their analysis. When it is added to the matrix, it emerges as a non-allosaurian carnosaur, and indeed can be a metriacanthosaurid. Note if it is a metriacanthosaurid, Erectopodidae would have priority as the family name.
References- Barrois, 1875. Les reptiles du terrain Crétacé du nord-est du Bassin de Paris. Bulletin scientifique, historique et littéraire du Nord. 6, 1-11.
Sauvage, 1876. Notes sur les reptiles fossiles no. 9. De la presence du type dinosaurien dans le Gault du nord de la France. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 4, 439-442.
Sauvage, 1882a. Sur les Reptiles trouvés dans le gault de l'est de la France [On the reptiles found in the Gault of eastern France]. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Académie des Sciences. 94, 1265-1266.
Sauvage, 1882b. Recherches sur les reptiles trouvés dans le Gault de l'est du bassin de Paris [Research on the reptiles found in the Gault of the eastern Paris Basin]. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, série 3. 2(4), 1-42.
Simionescu, 1913. Megalosaurus aus der Unterkreide der Dobrogea. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. 1913(20), 686-687.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1926a. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista Museo de La Plata. 29, 35-167.
Huene. 1926b. On several known and unknown reptiles of the order Saurischia from England and France. Annals and Magazine of Natural History.17, 473-489.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), 361 pp.
Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 22, 1-79.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957. [The dinosaurs of Portugal]. Services Geologiques du Portugal. Memoire 2, 1-63.
Molnar, 1990. Problematic Theropoda: "Carnosaurs". In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford. 306-317.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Laboratoire de Paleontologie. 329 pp.
Allain, 2002b. The phylogenetic relationships of Megalosauridae within basal tetanurine theropods (Dinosauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 31A.
Allain, 2005. The enigmatic theropod dinosaur Erectopus superbus (Sauvage, 1882) from the Lower Albian of Louppy-le-Ch'teau (Meuse, France). In Carpenter (ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. Indiana University Press. 72-86.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Buffetaut and Nori, 2012. Dinosaur remains from the "Sables verts" (Early Cretaceous, Albian) of the Eastern Paris Basin. In Godefroit (ed.). Bernissart Dinosaurs and Early Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. Indiana University Press. 362-377.
Csiki-Sava, Brusatte and Vasile, 2016. "Megalosaurus cf. superbus" from southeastern Romania: The oldest known Cretaceous carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and its implications for earliest Cretaceous Europe-Gondwana connections. Cretaceous Research. 60, 221-238.

Kelmayisaurus Dong, 1973
K. petrolicus Dong, 1973
Valanginian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Lianmuqin Formation of the Tugulu Group, Xinjiang, China

Holotype- (IVPP V4022) maxillary fragment, quadrate fragment (lost), incomplete dentary (523 mm)
Referred- ? distal pubes (Dong, 1992)
Early Cretaceous
Ejinhoro Formation, Inner Mongolia, China

Referred- ? (CCDP coll.) mandible (Dong, 1992)
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte et al., 2010) deeply inset and dorsally concave accessory groove located anteriorly on the lateral surface of the dentary.
Comments- Generally viewed as an indeterminate theropod, Brusatte et al. (2010) report Kelmayisaurus is diagnostic and shares characters with megalosauroids, carcharodontosaurids and megaraptorans. They redescribed it the following year as a basal carcharodontosaurid more derived than Neovenator but less than Acrocanthosaurus and more derived taxa, but only one more step was necessary to place it as a more basal carcharodontosaurid, megalosaurine or basal coelurosaur. Adding it to the matrix of Caranno et al. (2012) results in a less resolved placement however, as an allosaurian excluded from Megaraptora and carcharodontosaurids as derived as Eocarcharia. Moving it to Megalosauroidea or Coelurosauria still requires only a single additional step, so either relationship is about equally probable.
Dong (1992) mentioned two referred specimens. One is from the Ejinhoro Formation and may be possible to refer to Kelmayisaurus as the holotype also includes a dentary. The other is a pair of distal pubes from the same locality as the holotype, but cannot be compared with the latter.
References- Dong, 1973. Dinosaurs from Wuerho. Memoirs of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology Academica Sinica. 11, 45-52.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Ocean Press/Springer-Verlag, Beijing/Berlin. 188 pp.
Brusatte, Benson and Xu, 2010. The evolution of large-bodied theropod dinosaurs during the Mesozoic in Asia. Journal of Iberian Geology. 36(2), 275-296.
Brusatte, Benson and Xu, 2012. A reassessment of Kelmayisaurus petrolicus, a large theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57(1), 65-72.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Xuanhanosaurus Dong, 1984
X. qilixiaensis Dong, 1984
Aalenian-Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Xiashaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (IVPP V6729) four anterior dorsal vertebrae, posterior dorsal vertebra, dorsal neural arch, partial scapula, coracoid, humerus (265 mm), radius (202 mm; proximal end lost), ulna (240 mm; lost), distal carpal I, distal carpal II, distal carpal III, metacarpal I (52 mm), phalanx I-1 (84 mm), manual ungual I (64 mm), metacarpal II (109 mm), phalanx II-1 (64 mm), metacarpal III (94 mm), phalanx III-1 (32 mm), phalanx III-2 (28 mm), metacarpal IV (50 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) glenoid articular facet of humerus forms a raised horizontal ridge that overhangs the humeral shaft posteriorly.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) dorsal neural spines transversely thick with gently concave lateral surfaces.
Comments- The supposed sternum is part of the coracoid (Rauhut, 2000).
Benson (2008, 2010) and Holtz et al. (2004) recovered Xuanhanosaurus as a non-orionidan tetanurine, and Rauhut (2000) also found it to be a non-coelurosaur tetanurine. Benson found it to be sister to the Marshosaurus + Piatnitzkysaurus + Condorraptor clade, but this was poorly supported. More recently, Carrano et al. (2012) recovered the genus as a metriacanthosaurid outside Yangchuanosaurus and the derived metriacanthosaurine clade (Sinraptor, Siamotyrannus and Metriacanthosaurus). Yet when their analysis is properly ordered, it has a less exact position as a carnosaur outside Yangchuanosaurus, the derived metriacanthosaurine clade and Allosauria. In Carrano et al.'s matrix, it moves to Piatnitzkysauridae with only one more step, and outside Orionides with only three more steps, so no suggested position is well supported.
References- Dong, 1984. A new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Sichuan Basin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 22(3), 213-218.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Benson, 2008. A new theropod phylogeny focusing on basal tetanurans and its implications for European 'megalosaurs' and Middle Jurassic dinosaur endemism. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 51A.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Xu, Han and Zhao, 2014. Homologies and homeotic transformation of the theropod 'semilunate' carpal. Nature Scientific Reports. 4, 6042.

"Yuanmouraptor" Anonymous, 2014
Middle Jurassic
Yuanmou County, Yunnan, China
Material
- (ZLJ 0115) partial skull, mandibles (one incomplete, one partial), postcrania
Comments- This specimen is on display at the ZLJ as a new carnosaur, but has yet to be described. There is a mounted skeleton, but how much is original is unreported.
References- Anonymous, 2014. Special Exhibition: Legends of the Giant Dinosaurs. Hong Kong Science Museum newsletter. 1-3-2014, 2-7.

unnamed probable allosauroid (Russell, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gres Rouges Infracenomaniens, Morocco

Material- (CMN 41865; bone taxon F) distal humerus (~385 mm, 156 mm wide)
Comments- Very similar to Xuanhanosaurus.
Reference- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. 18, 349-402.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Williston, 1902)
Early-Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
Kansas, US

Material- centrum
References- Williston, 1902. Notes on some new or little-known extinct Reptiles. Kansas University Science Bulletin. 1, 247-254.
Lane, 1946. A survey of the fossil vertebrates of Kansas Part III: The Reptiles. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 49(3), 289-332.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Crusafont-Pairo and Androver, 1966)
Late Tithonian-Middle Berriasian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
Villar del Arzobispo Formation, Spain

Material- (IPS-G1) maxillary tooth (82.7x33.4x16.9 mm)
Comments- This was originally referred to Carcharodontosaurus (Crusafont-Pairo and Androver, 1966) and Megalosaurus (Kuhne and Crusafont-Pairo, 1968) before being described as a non-carcharodontosaurid allosauroid by Canudo et al. (2006). Gasco et al. (2012) noted this tooth is very similar to "Megalosaurus" ingens except in lacking enamel wrinkles.
References- Crusafont-Pairo and Androver, 1966. El primer representante de la clase mamiferos hallado en el Mesozoico de Espana. Teruel. 35, 139-143.
Kuhne and Crusafont-Pairo, 1968. Mamiferos del Wealdiense de Una, cerca de Cuenca. Nota preliminar. Acta Geologica Hispanica. 3(5), 133-134.
Canudo, Ruiz-Omenaca, Aurell, Barco and Cuenca-Bescos, 2006. A megatheropod tooth from the Late Tithonian - Middle Berriasian (Jurassic-Cretaceous transition) of Galve (Aragon, NE Spain). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 239(1), 77-99.
Gascó, Cobos, Royo-Torres, Mampel and Alcalá, 2012. Theropod teeth diversity from the Villar del Arzobispo Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) at Riodeva (Teruel, Spain). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. 92(2), 273-285.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Ghevariya and Srikami, 1994)
Middle Jurassic
Patcham Formation, India

Material- caudal vertebrae
Reference- Ghevariya and Srikarni, 1994. Dinosaur fauna from Mesozoic rocks of Western India. Ninth International Gondwana Symposium. 143-163.

undescribed possible allosauroid (Flynn, Simpson, Razafimanastoa, Andriatompohavana and Totovolohy, 1997)
Middle Jurassic
Madagascar

Material- teeth, two presacral vertebrae
Comments- These were listed as belonging to a "small ?allosauroid", but not described.
Reference- Flynn, Simpson, Razafimanastoa, Andriatompohavana and Totovolohy, 1997. New Triassic and Jurassic vertebrates from Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 46A.

undescribed possible allosauroid (Rich, Roland, Gangloff and Hammer, 1997)
Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
Suntar Series, Russia

Reference- Rich, Roland, Gangloff and Hammer, 1997. Polar Dinosaurs. In Currie and Padian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, New York. 562-573.

unnamed allosauroid (Knoll, Buffetaut and Bulow, 1999)
Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Marnes de Dives, France

Material- (Bulow coll. 25192) braincase
.... frontals (Buffetaut and Enos, 1992)
Comments- Allain (2002) states this is probably an allosaurid. It is not Piveteausaurus or Eustreptospondylus.
Reference- Buffetaut and Enos, 1992. Un nouveau fragment crânien de dinosaure théropode du Jurassique des Vaches Noires (Normandie, France): remarques sur la diversité des théropodes jurassiques européens [A new theropod dinosaur skull fragment from the Jurassic of the Vaches Noires (Normandy, France): Remarks on the diversity of the Jurassic theropods of Europe]. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Paris, Série II. 314, 217-222.
Knoll, Buffetaut and Bulow, 1999. A theropod braincase from the Jurassic of the Vaches Noires Cliffs (Normandy, France): Osteology and palaeoneurology. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France. 170(1), 103-109.
Allain, 2001. Redescription of Streptospondylus altdorfensis, Cuvier’s theropod dinosaur, from the Jurassic of Normandy, Geodiversitas. 23(3), 349-367.

unnamed Allosauroidea (Naish, 2003)
Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Hastings Group, England

Material- (HASMG G.378; = HASTM GG98 of Benton and Spencer, 1995) proximal tibia (~550 mm)
teeth (Austen et al., 2010)
Comments- The tibia differs from Neovenator, though it resembles the latter and Allosaurus more than Fukuraptor or Sinraptor. It may be referrable to Altispinax.
References- Benton and Spencer, 1995. Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain. Chapman & Hall, London.
Naish, 2003. A definitive allosauroid (Dinosauria; Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of East Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 114, 319-326.
Austen, Brockhurst and Honeysett, 2010. Vertebrate fauna from Ashdown Brickworks, Bexhill, East Sussex. Wealden News. 8, 13-23.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Infante, Canudo, and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2005)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Mirambel Formation, Spain

Material- (LAD4r-1) tooth (~22 mm)
Reference- Infante, Canudo, and Ruiz-Omeñaca, 2005. First evidence of theropod dinosaurs in the Mirambel Formation (lower Barremian, Lower Cretaceous) in Castellote, Teruel. Geogaceta. 38, 31-34.

undescribed allosauroid (Kirkland, 2005)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Yellow Cat Member of Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Comments- Kirkland (2005) listed a "large carnosaurid perhaps related to Utah’s state fossil, the Late Jurassic Allosaurus" as coming from the Yellow Cat Member.
Reference- Kirkland, 2005. Utah’s newly recognized dinosaur record. Utah Geological Survey: Survey Notes. 37(1), 1-5.

unnamed possible allosauroid (Ruiz-Omenaca, Canudo and Infante, 2005)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Camarillas Formation, Spain

Material- (MPZ2005/316-317) teeth
Reference- Ruiz-Omenaca, Canudo and Infante, 2005. Presencia de un posible Alosaurido (Dinosauria: Theropoda) en el Cretacico inferior (Barremiense Inferior) de la Maca 3, (Galve, eruel). XXI Jornadas de la Sociedad Espanola de Paleontologia. 117-118.

undescribed allosauroid (Gasulla, Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2006)
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Arcillas de Morella Formation, Spain
Material
- (CMP-3-744) distal tibia
Reference- Gasulla, Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2006. Diversidad de terópodos del Cretácico Inferior (Fm. Arcillas de Morella, Aptiense) en los yacimientos del Mas de la Parreta (Morella, Castellón). In Fernández-Martínez (ed.). XXII Jornadas de Paleontología de la Sociedad Española de Paleontología. Libro de resúmenes, 124-125.

unnamed allosauroid (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation, Niger
Material-
(MNN GAD1; holotype of Kryptops palaios in part) (~6-7 m; adult) fragmentary anterior dorsal vertebra (~70 mm), two partial mid dorsal vertebrae, two ribs (~500-600 mm), sacrum (?,?,?,110,110 mm), ilia (650 mm), pubes (~620 mm), ischia (~580 mm)
Comments- This was described as part of the holotype of the abelisaur Kryptops by Sereno and Brusatte (2008). The postcrania were in situ, while the maxilla was loose on the surface 15 meters away. Furthermore, Carrano et al. (2012) noted the postcrania are too primitive for an abelisaur, suggesting they do not belong together. They believed a a subrectangular fenestra between the fourth and fifth sacral neural spines as in Giganotosaurus and a peg-and-socket ilioischial articulation indicated the postcrania were carcharodontosaurid, probably the contemporaneous Eocarcharia. Cau (online, 2012) ran the postcrania as a separate OTU and found them to clade with Siamotyrannus in Metriacanthosaurinae. They are retained here as Allosauroidea incertae sedis.
References- Sereno and Brusatte, 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(1), 15-46.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cau, online 2012. http://theropoda.blogspot.com/2012/05/tetanurae-update-part-2.html

unnamed possible allosauroid (Malafaia, Ortega, Silva, Escaso and Dantas, 2008)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Abadia Formation, Portugal
Material
- (juvenile) teeth, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, rib fragments, gastralia, sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, ilium, pubic fragments, ischial fragments
Comments- Malafaia et al. (2008) referred this specimen to Allosauroidea based on the mid cervical centra having a length between twice and half of their height, a preacetabular process that does not anteriorly surpass the pubic peduncle, a pubic foot >50% of element length, and a rounded ischial foot. They further distinguished it from both Allosaurus and Lourinhanosaurus, calling it Allosauroidea indet..
Reference- Malafaia, Ortega, Silva, Escaso and Dantas, 2008. Un nuevo ejemplar de Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Tetanurae) del Jurásico Superior de Valmitão (Lourinhã, Portugal). XXIV Jornadas de la Sociedad Española de Paleontología, abstracts. 148-149.

undescribed possible allosauroid (Zhao and Xu, 2008)
Early Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Lujiatun Beds of Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China
Material
- (IVPP coll.) humerus (283 mm), radius, ulna (237 mm), metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I (130 mm)
Comments- Zhao and Xu report this specimen has well developed humeral internal and outer tuberosities; well developed entepicondyle; greatly expanded deltopectoral crest; ectocondyle more expanded than entocondyle; high ulnohumeral ratio of 84%; ulna slightly curved; smooth surface on the top of the well developed olecranon process; well developed biceps tubercle on the radius; sub-rhombic distal end of radius; manual ungual I 46% of humeral length. They say preliminary analysis suggests it may be carnosaurian though it shares some characters with coelurosaurs. The basal tyrannosauroid Yutyrannus was later described from this formation and is of similar size with a similar ungual/humeral ratio, but lacks an entepicondyle, has a larger entocondyle than ectocondyle, and a shorter ulna (~73% of humeral length) which is straight. Thus it seems unlikely Zhao and Xu's specimen is an early Yutyrannus record.
Reference- Zhao and Xu, 2008. A new theropod from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 164A.

unnamed allosauroid (Benson, Brusatte, Hutt and Naish, 2009)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Wessex Formation, England
Material
- (MIWG 6350) (~5.3 m) incomplete pubes, distal femur
Comments- Benson et al. (2009) identified this as a nonm-coelurosaurian tetanurine, while Carrano et al. (2012) further indicated it was likely to be a carnosaur due to the large pubic boot.
References- Benson, Brusatte, Hutt and Naish, 2009. A new large basal tetanuran (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Wessex Formation (Barremian) of the Isle of Wight. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(2), 612-615.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

undescribed allosauroid (Allain, Vullo, Leprince, Neraudeau and Tournepiche, 2011)
Hauterivian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Angeac-Charente lignite, France
Material
- (ANG 10-51) tooth (Neraudeau et al., 2012)
(ANG 10-262) tooth (Neraudeau et al., 2012)
Comments- Neraudeau et al. (2012) state these are indistinguishable from Neovenator.
References- Allain, Vullo, Leprince, Neraudeau and Tournepiche, 2011. An ornithomimosaur-dominated bonebed from the Early Cretaceous of Southwestern France. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 61.
Néraudeau, Allain, Ballèvre, Batten, Buffetaut, Colin, Dabard, Daviero-Gomez, Albani, Gomez, Grosheny, Le Loeuff, Leprince, Martín-Closas, Masure, Mazin, Philippe, Pouech, Tong, Tournepiche and Vullo, 2012. The Hauterivian-Barremian lignitic bone bed of Angeac (Charente, south-west France): Stratigraphical, palaeobiological and palaeogeographical implications. Cretaceous Research. 37, 1-14.

undescribed allosauroid (Judd, Irmis and Kirkland, 2013)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Ruby Ranch Member of Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Material- cervical vertebra, partial sacrum, partial pelvis, femur
Comments- Judd et al. (2013) found this to be an allosauroid based on- anterior pleurocoel of cervical vertebra anteroposteriorly elongate; cervical parapophysis located in middle of centrum; no articular groove on proximal surface of femoral head. However, it is similar to megalosaurids in having an oblique ligament groove that does not extend past the posterior surface of the femoral head.
Reference- Judd, Irmis and Kirkland, 2013. A new large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation (Ruby Ranch Member) in Central Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 150.

unnamed possible Allosauroidea (Serrano-Martinez, Ortega, Sciscio, Tent-Manclus, Bandera and Knoll, 2015)
Bathonian-Oxfordian, Middle-Late Jurassic
Tiouraren Formation of the Irhazer Group, Niger

Material- (TP4-6) tooth (55.9x20x13.3 mm)
(TP4-7) tooth (23.8x13.4x6.9 mm)
Comments- These grouped with Allosaurus and Acrocanthosaurus, but no metriacanthosaurids were included.
Reference- Serrano-Martinez, Ortega, Sciscio, Tent-Manclus, Bandera and Knoll, 2015. New theropod remains from the Tiourarén Formation (?Middle Jurassic, Niger) and their bearing on the dental evolution in basal tetanurans. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. 126(1), 107-118.

unnamed allosauroid (Paulina-Carabajal and Coria, 2015)
Late Turonian-Early Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Portezuelo Formation of Rio Neuquen Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Material- (MCF-PVPH 320) frontal
Comments- This emerges as a sinraptorid when entered into Cau's Sauroniops matrix.
Reference- Paulina-Carabajal and Coria, 2015. An unusual theropod frontal from the Upper Cretaceous of north Patagonia. Alcheringa. 39(4), 514-518.

Metriacanthosauridae Paul, 1988 sensu Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
Definition- (Metriacanthosaurus parkeri <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus) (Hendrickx, Hartman and Mateus, 2015)
= Sinraptoridae Currie and Zhao, 1994
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (Holtz et al., 2004)
Other definitions- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis) (modified from Padian and Hutchinson, 1997)
(Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Padian and Hutchinson, 1997
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis) (modified)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Holtz et al., 2004
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus)
= Sinraptoridae sensu Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Sinraptor dongi <- Allosaurus fragilis, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus)
Comments- Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994.
Brusatte and Sereno's (2008) definition of Sinraptoridae differs from Holtz et al.'s (2004) by including Passer as an external specifier, which I view as superfluous, since a (Allosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus (Sinraptor, Passer)) topology has never been advocated. Megalosaurus might be a better choice for a tertiary external specifier, to cover traditional phylogenies prior to 1993.
In several phylogenies prior to 1994, metriacanthosaurids such as Yangchuanosaurus were seen as outside Avetheropoda. While not seen in many recent analyses, this only takes five more steps when constrained in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, so is still quite possible.
Not metriacanthosaurids- Bakker et al. (1992) thought the maxilla OUMNH J.13506 was a 'yangchuanosaur', but this was referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii by Benson (2010).
References- Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Bakker, Kralis, Siegwarth and Filla, 1992. Edmarka rex, a new, gigantic theropod dinosaur from the Middle Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic of the Como Bluff outcrop region. With comments on the evolution of the chest region and shoulder in theropods and birds, and a discussion of the five cycles of origin and extinction among giant dinosaurian predators. Hunteria. 2(9), 1-24.
Benson, 2010. A description of Megalosaurus bucklandii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Bathonian of the UK and the relationships of Middle Jurassic theropods. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158(4), 882-935.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Hartman and Mateus, 2015. An overview of non-avian theropod discoveries and classification. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 12(1), 1-73.

undescribed Metriacanthosauridae (Gerke and Wings, 2014)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Langenberg Quarry and/or Hannover, Germany
Material
- (NLMH coll.) teeth
Reference- Gerke and Wings, 2014. Characters versus morphometrics: A case study with isolated theropod teeth from the Late Jurassic of Lower Saxony, Germany, reveals an astonishing diversity of theropod taxa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2014, 137.

Yangchuanosaurus Dong, Chang, Li, Zhou, 1978
= "Szechuanoraptor" Chure, 2000
Comments- Rauhut (2000) believed Yangchuanosaurus and Sinraptor to be "almost identical" and found it likely all specimens were from a single species, which would be Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis. More recently, Carrano et al. (2012) found Sinraptor to be closer to Metriacanthosaurus, Siamotyrannus and Shidaisaurus than to Yangchuanosaurus.
References- Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Y. shangyouensis Dong, Chang, Li, Zhou and Chang, 1978
= Szechuanosaurus "yandonensis" Dong, Chang, Li and Zhou, 1978
= Yangchuanosaurus magnus Dong, Zhou and Zhang, 1983
= Metriacanthosaurus "carpenteri" Paul, 1988
= Metriacanthasaurus shangyouensis (Dong, Chang, Li, Zhou, 1978) Paul, 1988
= “Szechuanoraptor dongi” Chure, 2000
Bathonian-Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Shangshaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (CV 00215) (7.9 m, 1.33 tons, subadult) skull (780 mm), mandibles (780 mm), axis (64 mm), third cervical vertebra (78 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (95 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (115 mm), sixth cervical vertebra 118 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (120 mm) eighth cervical vertebra (138 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (114 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (95 mm), fourteen cervical ribs (eighth 500 mm), first dorsal vertebra (120 mm), second dorsal vertebra (120 mm), third dorsal vertebra (120 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (120 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (125 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (130 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (130 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (128 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (130 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (130 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (135 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (132 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (133 mm), twenty-four dorsal ribs (100-1080 mm), first sacral vertebra (130 mm), second sacral vertebra (110 mm), third sacral vertebra (91 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (100 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (105 mm), first caudal vertebra (98 mm), second caudal vertebra (102 mm), third caudal vertebra (100 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (96 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (106 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (118 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (108 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (107 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (115 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (110 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (110 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (110 mm), twelve chevrons (to 199 mm), distal scapula, fragmentary humerus, ilia, pubes, ischia, femora (850 mm), tibiae (755 mm), fibulae, astragalus, calcaneum, several pedal phalanges(?)
Referred- (Beijing Museum of Natural History coll.) skeleton (Dong, 1988)
(CV 00214; intended holotype of "Szechuanoraptor dongi") (3.8 m, 130 kg) many anterior and lateral teeth, axis (55 mm), third cervical vertebra (60 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (65 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (55 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (65 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (70 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (62 mm), first dorsal vertebra (60 mm), second dorsal vertebra (60 mm), third dorsal vertebra (74 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (60 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (65 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (62 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (62 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacral centrum, eighteen caudal vertebrae, scapula (500 mm), coracoid, humeri (270, 265 mm), ulnae, radii, two distal carpals, metacarpal I (50 mm), metacarpal II (90 mm), metacarpal III, manual phalanges, manual ungual I, manual II, manual ungual III, ilium, pubes (~460 mm), ischium (420 mm), femur (585 mm), tibiae (580 mm), fibula (560 mm), astragali, calcanea, metatarsal I (56 mm), pedal ungual I, metatarsal II, metatarsal III (200 mm), metatarsal IV, pedal phalanges, pedal unguals (Dong, Zhou and Zhang, 1983)
(CV 00216; holotype of Yangchuanosaurus magnus) (10.5 m; 3.1 tons) partial skull (1.11 m), mandibles (1.17 m), axis (115 mm), third cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal vertebrae, second dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, first sacral vertebra (145 mm), second sacral vertebra (135 mm), third sacral vertebra (120 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (111 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (120 mm), first caudal vertebra (130 mm), second caudal vertebra (125 mm), third caudal vertebra (125 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (120 mm), four mid caudal vertebrae, ilium, incomplete ischium, femur (950 mm), pedal phalanx I-1, pedal phalanx III-1
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) differs from Sinraptor in- higher ratio of skull height to length (0.5); dorsal vertebral neural spines lower (about 1.8 times centrum height); dorsal centra relatively longer; more pronounced margin of the antorbital fossa on the jugal (also in hepingensis).
Comments- Yangchuanosaurus' holotype was discovered in 1976, while Y. magnus' holotype was found in 1973. Paul (1988), Holtz et al. (2004) and Carrano et al. (2012) all consider magnus to be synonymous with shangyouensis. Paul believed the ilium and tibia were poorly ossified in shangyouensis' type, showing it to be a juvenile (though far younger juveniles like Scipionyx have expanded preacetabular processes showing full ossification). Carrano et al. noted the (pro-?, or accessory?) maxillary fossa being developed into a fenestra in magnus is congruent with that specimen being older. In addition, variation in pneumatic features is common in theropods, even between sides of the same individual. Of Dong et al.'s (1983) other characters to distinguish the species, larger size in magnus could be ontogenetic, magnus lacks a foramen at the base of the posterodorsal dentary process but surangular foramina are known to vary in presence in Dromiceiomimus brevitertius individuals, and shangyouensis' type has a tapered preacetabular process that may be artificial but also varies in Archaeopteryx lithographica individuals.
"Szechuanoraptor"- Dong et al. (1978) list Szechuanosaurus "yandonensis" as a new species in a faunal list of taxa from the Wujiaba quarry of the Shangshaximiao Formation. There is no description or illustration, making this a nomen nudum. In 1983, Dong et al. note there was only a single large theropod skeleton in the Wujiaba quarry, described by them as a neotype of Szechuanosaurus campi. It can be implied that Dong et al. originally believed CV 00214 to be a new species of Szechuanosaurus, but later decided to include it in S. campi. Note that Dong et al.'s attempt at a neotype designation is invalid, as the ICZN requires the original type(s) to be lost or destroyed (Article 75.3.4) and that the new specimen "came as nearly as practicable from the original type locality" (Article 75.3.6) whereas CV 00214 is from a different stratigraphic group than Szechuanosaurus' types. To make CV 00214 a neotype merely due to the suggested undiagnosability of S. campi's syntypes would require an ICZN petition (Article 75.5).
Paul (1988) stated the teeth associated with CV 00214 lack roots and thus were shed by a scavenger, but Dong et al. state "the tooth root is longer than the crown, is exposed, and elliptical" for some lateral teeth. As the article was written in Chinese and the current English tranlation dates from 1999, it is possible Paul mistook figure 39 (which reproduces drawings of rootless S. campi syntypes) as figures of teeth found with CV 00214. He placed the specimen in Metriacanthosaurus (along with Yangchuanosaurus), as Metriacanthosaurus? sp.. Paul stated "there are so many uncertainties about this beast that I balk at giving it a new name." Yet in the earlier discussion of Metriacanthosaurus, Paul refers to the species as M. carpenteri and states it belongs in a separate subgenus than M. parkeri and M. shangyouensis. One may conclude Paul originally intended to name the taxon, but later changed his mind and didn't catch all the times he had used the name. In any case, "carpenteri" is a nomen nudum since ICZN Article 11.5 states "To be available, a name must be used as valid for a taxon when proposed ..."
Chure (2000) used this specimen as the holotype of his new species "Szechuanoraptor dongi" in his unpublished thesis. Names in theses aren't usually listed in this website, and this one is only because it was later published by Glut (2003). Glut's work includes a caveat to the effect that it is not available to establish new taxonomy however, so the name remains unofficial. Chure referred the specimens of Szechuanosaurus? zigongensis to "Szechuanoraptor dongi" as well, but this seems incorrect, since they are from an earlier formation and differ morphologically.
Carrano et al. (2012) agreed with Paul that CV 00214 could not be referred to Szechuanosaurus, and also with me in that zigongensis is from an earlier formation and they could not identify apomorphies shared between them. They found the specimen to be sister to Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis in their analysis and synonymized the species.
References- Dong, Chang, Li and Zhou, 1978. Note on a new carnosaur Yanchuangosaurus shangyuanensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Jurassic of Yangchuan District, Szechuan Province. Kexue Tongabao. 23(5), 302-304.
Dong, Zhou and Zhang, 1983. Dinosaurs from the Jurassic of Sichuan. Palaeontologica Sinica. Whole Number 162, New Series C, 23, 136 pp.
Dong, 1988. Dinosaurs of China. English Edition. China Ocean Press, Beijing and British Museum (Natural History), London. 114 pp.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (UT-CO) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Glut, 2003. Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia. Supplement 3. McFarland Press. 726 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Y. zigongensis (Gao, 1993) Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012
= Szechuanosaurus zigongensis Gao, 1993
Aalenian-Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Xiashaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (ZDM 9011) ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, thirteen dorsal vertebrae (series 1.17 m), dorsal ribs, five sacral vertebrae, twenty-five caudal vertebrae, scapula, humerus (360 mm), radius (200 mm), ulna (240 mm), distal carpal (46 mm), metacarpal I (62 mm), phalanx I-1 (92 mm), metacarpal II (118 mm), phalanx II-1 (75 mm), metacarpal III (107 mm), metacarpal IV (52 mm), ilia (550 mm), pubes (580 mm), ischia (510 mm)
Referred- ?(ZDM 9012) maxilla, teeth (Gao, 1993)
?(ZDM 9013) ten teeth (Gao, 1993)
?(ZDM 9014) femur, tibia, fibula (Gao, 1993)
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) differs from Gasosaurus and Xuanhanosaurus in the more rectangular deltopectoral crest and the proximal part of the humerus being less expanded transversely; from Monolophosaurus and Eustreptospondylus in the gradually sloping anterior rim of the maxilla and the lack of opisthocoelous cervical vertebrae; from Piatnitzkysaurus in the gradually sloping anterior rim of the maxilla and the less expanded proximal humerus; from Poekilopleuron in the more strongly pronounced olecranon process of the ulna and the lack of a medial process on the radius; from Metriacanthosaurus in the less steeply sloping posterodorsal rim of the ilium; from Proceratosaurus in the more massive and relatively shorter posterior part of the maxilla.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) only cervical vertebrae 2–4 opisthocoelous, remainder amphiplatyan.
Comments- ZDM 9011 was discovered in 1984 and initially referred to Gasosaurus, but described by Gao (1993) as a new species of Szechuanosaurus - S. zigongensis. This was based on a number of characters, largely symplesiomorphies. Chure (2000) referred these specimens to his new taxon "Szechuanoraptor dongi" (based on CV 00214), needlessly creating a new species name, but there appears to be little reason for such a referral, as Carrano et al. (2012) note. The specimens derive from different formations and differ morphologically, with Carrano et al. finding zigongensis to be sister to Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis instead. They therefore renamed it Yangchuanosaurus zigongensis. While recovered outside Orionides by both Rauhut (2000) and Holtz et al. (2004), this requires 11 more steps in Carrano et al.'s analysis, so is probably not true.
References- Gao, 1993. A new species of Szechuanosaurus from the Middle Jurassic of Dashanpu, Zigong, Sichuan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 31(4), 308-314.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (UT-CO) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Metriacanthosaurinae Paul, 1988
Definition- (Metriacanthosaurus parkeri <- Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis) (Hendrickx, Hartman and Mateus, 2015; modified from Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) anteroventral border of maxillary antorbital fossa demarcated by raised ridge; pronounced ventral keel on anterior dorsal vertebrae (also in Carcharodontosaurus); straight posterior margin of iliac postacetabular process; angle of less than 60 degrees between long axes of pubic shaft and boot; ventrally curved ischial shaft; bulbous fibular crest on tibia.
Comments- Paul (1988) originally used this as a subfamily of eustreptospondylids, including all metriacanthosaurids known at the time (Yangchuanosaurus and Metriacanthosaurus). Carrano et al. (2012) later recovered a much larger Metriacanthosauridae and used Paul's subfamily as a name for one subclade, though they mistakenly think Paul named the family instead and thus credit themselves with the subfamily.
References- Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Hartman and Mateus, 2015. An overview of non-avian theropod discoveries and classification. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 12(1), 1-73.

unnamed metriacanthosaurine (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2007)
Early Cretaceous?
Phu Kradung Formation, Thailand
Material
- (SM 10) tibia (618 mm)
Comments- Buffetaut and Suteethorn (2007) described numerous similarities to Sinraptor and Yangchuanosaurus, referring it to Sinraptoridae. Carrano et al. (2012) agreed, and I note it has a bulbous fibular crest like metriacanthosaurines in particular.
References- Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2007. A sinraptorid theropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Phu Kradung Formation of northeastern Thailand. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France. 178, 497-502.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Shidaisaurus Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan and Wang, 2009
S. jinae Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan and Wang, 2009
Aalenian-Bajocian, Middle Jurassic
Upper Lufeng Formation, Yunnan, China
Holotype
- (LDM-LCA 9701-IV) braincase, three teeth, atlantal intercentrum, axis, cervical vertebrae, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, thirteenth dorsal vertebra, two gastralia, sacral vertebrae 1+2, third sacral vertebra, fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral vertebra, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra, third caudal vertebra, ilium (620 mm), pubes (620 mm), ischium (599 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Wu et al., 2009) supraoccipital excluded from foramen magnum; paroccipital processes downturned at 110 degrees; large, pointed axial epipophyses; thin and broad lamina between axial neural spine and epipophyses; iliopubic ratio ~1.00; obturator notch absent on ischium; ischium >96% of pubic length.
Comments- Wu et al. merely considered Shidaisaurus a tetanurine, perhaps non-avetheropod due to the absent axial pleurocoel. Carrano et al. (2012) included it in their tetanurine analysis and found it to be a basal metriacanthosaurine.
References- Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan and Wang, 2009. A new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Lufeng, Yunnan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica. 83(1), 9-24.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Metriacanthosaurus Walker, 1964
M. parkeri (Huene, 1923) Walker, 1964
= Megalosaurus parkeri Huene, 1923
= Altispinax parkeri (Huene, 1923) Huene, 1932
Early-Middle Oxfordian, Late Jurassic
Upper Oxford Clay, England

Holotype- (OUM J.12144) three anterior dorsal vertebrae (110 mm), posterior dorsal neural arch, partial posterior dorsal centrum, incomplete first sacral vertebra, second sacral centrum, first caudal vertebra, nine proximal caudal vertebrae, incomplete ilium (~765 mm), incomplete pubes, incomplete ischia, femora (849 mm), proximal tibia
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2000) dorsal margin of the ilium with a pronounced kink over the posterior part of the acetabulum (may be due to preservation- Carrano et al., 2012).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) ventral surfaces of posterior dorsal centra flat and with breadth approximately 2/3 posterior height of centrum.
Comments- Pickering (unpublished ms) has referred the distal fibula BMNH 40517 to Metriacanthosaurus parkeri, which was first mentioned by Lydekker (1888) as Omosaurus? sp., then referred to Lexovisaurus durobrivensis by Galton (1985). It was most recently called Dinosauria indet. by Maidment et al. (2008).
References- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Walker, 1964. Triassic reptiles from the Elgin area: Ornithosuchus and the origin of carnosaurs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 248, 53-134.
Galton, 1985. British plated dinosaurs (Ornithischia, Stegosauridae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 5, 211-254.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Allain, 2002a. Les Megalosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Nouvelle découverte et révision systématique: Implications phylogénétiques et paléobiogéographiques. PhD thesis. 329 pp.
Maidment, Norman, Barrett and Upchurch, 2008. Systematics and phylogeny of Stegosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 6, 367-407.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Siamotyrannus Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 1996
S. isanensis Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 1996
Berraisian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

Holotype- (PW9-1) five dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, caudal vertebrae 1-13, several chevrons, ilium (820 mm), pubis, ischium
Referred- ? teeth, tibia (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) double vertical ridge on central part of lateral iliac blade.
Comments- Although originally assigned to the Tyrannosauroidea (Buffetaut et al., 1996), Pharris (DML, 1997), Rauhut (2000), Holtz et al. (2004) and Carrano et al. (2012) determined it is carnosaurian.
Rauhut argues against the assignment of Siamotyrannus to the Tyrannosauroidea because the structure in the figure is not a medioventral shelf on the ilium, that other theropods have vertical lateral ilial ridges and proximolateral ischial scars, and that the pubic foot is broken posteriorly, so its length cannot be determined. However, he fails to mention the narrow second and third sacral centra, well-marked insertion of the transverse process of sacral 1 on the ilium and other minor characters cited by Buffetaut et al.. It grouped with allosauroids in his preliminary analysis, before it was excluded to limit the number of MPT's.
Holtz et al. placed Siamotyrannus with Fukuiraptor because both were scored as lacking dorsal pleurocoels, but anterior dorsal centra are unknown for both, and all non-carcharodontosaurid carnosaurs lack mid and posterior dorsal pleurocoels. When this relationship is enforced in Carrano et al.'s matrix, it takes 11 more steps, showing it is unlikely.
Most recently, Carrano et al. found Siamotyrannus to be a derived metriacanthosaurine, which is followed here. This must remain tentative though, considering it shows some similarities to basal coelurosaurs as well, and coelurosaurs were poorly sampled in that analysis. It only requires five extra steps to move Siamotyrannus to Coelurosauria in their matrix, so neither position is unlikely.
References- Buffetaut, Suteethorn and Tong, 1996. The earliest known tyrannosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand. Nature. 381(6584), 689-691.
Pharris, DML 1997. http://dml.cmnh.org/1997Jun/msg00271.html
Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 1998. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from Thailand and their bearing on the early evolution and biogeographical history of some groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs. In Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 14, 205-210.
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Holtz, Molnar and Currie, 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria Second Edition. University of California Press. 71-110.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Sinraptor Currie and Zhao, 1994
S. dongi Currie and Zhao, 1994
= Yangchuanosaurus dongi (Currie and Zhao, 1994) Gao, 1999
Bathonian-Oxfordian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Shishugou Formation, Xinjiang, China

Holotype- (IVPP 10600) (7.62 m) skull (900 mm), mandible, two ceratobranchials (500 mm), atlas, axis (78 mm), third cervical vertebra (74 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (85 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (80 mm), partial sixth cervical vertebra, partial seventh cervical vertebra, partial eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra (100 mm), tenth cervical vertebra (87 mm), incomplete cervical ribs 2-10, (dorsal series 1426.3 mm) first dorsal vertebra (83.5 mm), second dorsal vertebra (94 mm), third dorsal vertebra (95.5 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (101.5 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (113 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (118 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (113 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (119 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (120 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (122 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (122 mm), dorsal ribs 1-11, gastralia, first sacral vertebra (108 mm), second sacral centrum (78.5 mm), third sacral centrum (99 mm), fourth sacral centrum (104.5 mm), partial fifth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral rib, first caudal vertebra (77 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (103 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (102.5 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (87.5 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (85 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (95.5 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (110 mm), scapulae (755 mm), sternum, proximal phalanx I-1, metacarpal II (135 mm), phalanx II-2 (87 mm), metacarpal III (122 mm), phalanx III-1 (38 mm), manual ungual III (81 mm), metacarpal IV (57 mm), ilia (682 mm), pubes (700 mm), ischia (650 mm), femora (876 mm), tibiae (776, 769 mm), fibulae (729, 697 mm), astragali, calcanea, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I (90 mm), phalanx I-1 (66 mm), pedal ungual I (66 mm), metatarsal II (360 mm), phalanx II-1 (135 mm), phalanx II-2 (107 mm), pedal ungual II (111 mm), metatarsal III (410 mm), phalanx III-1 (135 mm), phalanx III-2 (98 mm), phalanx III-3 (74 mm), pedal ungual III (90 mm), metatarsal IV (375 mm), phalanx IV-1 (98 mm), phalanx IV-2 (82 mm), phalanx IV-3, pedal ungual IV (86 mm), metatarsal V (65 mm)
Paratype- (IVPP coll.) nine teeth
Referred- (IVPP 15310) tooth (92x35x18 mm) (Xu and Clark, 2008)
(IVPP V18060) metatarsal IV (355 mm) (He, Clark and Xu, 2013)
skull, cervical vertebrae (Clark et al., 2002)
Diagnosis- (after Currie and Zhao, 1994) differs from S? hepingensis in- longer, lower premaxilla; more numerous and elaborate accessory maxillary fossae; posterior postorbital process with reduced lateral exposure; longer subtemporal bar.
Comments- The holotype specimen was discovered in 1987 and first announced in Anderson (1987a) as "Jiangjunmiaosaurus", a name generally associated with what was eventually named Monolophosaurus. The article mentions preserved feet and "the whole" skeleton, unlike the Monolophosaurus type. Anderson's (1987b) later article clarifies that "it has been tentatively labelled a jiangjunmiaosaurus, a carnivore first found in the Junggar Basin in 1983 by Zhao Xi Lin." The latter matches the discovery of Monolophosaurus' holotype, so it's apparent Sinraptor was originally thought to be another Monolophosaurus specimen when first discovered. The second article contains photos of Sinraptor dongi's hindlimb elements and mentions Currie felt it was probably related to allosaurs. Paul (1988) mentions the specimen as an allosaurine where "the nasal ridges and orbital horn are combined into a prominent pair of long, low, rugose-surfaced crests", which clearly described Sinraptor though Paul uses the same "Jinagjunmiaosaurus" and mentions pers. comm. with Dong, so the specimens were probably still thought to be conspecific. Currie and Zhao (1991) reported on both Monolophosaurus and Sinraptor in their abstract, still unnamed, so that Olshevsky (1991) listed both "Jiangjunmiaosaurus" and "Monolophosaurus" as separate genera, not realizing the proper connection noted above. Currie and Zhao noted some characters suggested allosaurid affinities while others suggested megalosaurid affinities. Dong (1992) list this specimen as Yangchuanosaurus sp. nov., citing Currie and Zhao (in press). The taxon was finally described by Currie and Zhao (1994) in a monograph which assigned it to their new family Sinraptoridae. Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994. The quadrate was later described by Currie (2006), while the braincase was redescribed in depth by Paulina Carabajal and Currie (2012).
Xu and Clark (2008) described a large tooth as sinraptorid, here referred to the contemporaneous S. dongi. Size differences between it and the type could easily be ontogenetic or individual.
He et al. (2013) described a metatarsal IV from the same formation as S. dongi, resolving it as a sinraptorid in their phylogenetic analysis. They noted it resembled S. dongi except for being more robust and having a lateral condyle smaller than the medial one. While the authors interpreted these as species-level differences, they are here considered individual variation considering the vast amount of variation in e.g. Allosaurus and Yangchuanosaurus.
References- Anderson, 1987a. Chinese dinosaur dig strikes bonanza. New Scientist. 1584, 25.
Anderson, 1987b. Chinese unearth a dinosaurs' graveyard. New Scientist. 1586, 28-29.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Currie and Zhao, 1991. Two new theropods from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 11(3), 24A.
Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Ocean Press/Springer-Verlag, Beijing/Berlin. 188 pp.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30(10), 2037-2081.
Gao, 1999. A complete carnosaur skeleton from Zigong, Sichuan. Sichuan Science & Technology Press, Chengdu. 80 pp.
Clark, Xu, Forster, Wang and Andres, 2002. New small dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation at Wucaiwan, Xinjiang, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 44A.
Currie, 2006. On the quadrate of Sinraptor dongi (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) from the Late Jurassic of China. In Csiki (ed.). Mesozoic and Cenozoic Vertebrates and Paleoenvironments. Ars Docendi. 111-115.
Xu and Clark, 2008. The presence of a gigantic theropod in the Jurassic Shishugou Formation, Junggar Basin, Western China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 46(2), 157-160.
Paulina Carabajal and Currie, 2012. New information on the braincase of Sinraptor dongi (Theropoda: Allosauroidea): Ethmoidal region, endocranial anatomy, and pneumaticity. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 50(2), 85-101.
He, Clark and Xu, 2013. A large theropod metatarsal from the upper part of Jurassic Shishugou Formation in Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 51(1), 29-42.
S? hepingensis (Gao, 1992) Currie and Zhao, 1994
= Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis Gao, 1992
Bathonian-Callovian, Middle Jurassic
Shangshaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China

Holotype- (ZDM 0024) (8.84 m) skull (1.04 m), stapes, mandibles (1 m), proatlas, atlantal intercentrum (36 mm), atlantal neural arch, axis (88 mm), third cervical vertebra (88 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (98 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (100 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (113 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (110 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (115 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (115 mm), incomplete tenth cervical vertebra (100 mm), cervical ribs, incomplete first dorsal vertebra (95 mm), second dorsal vertebra (85 mm), third dorsal vertebra (90 mm), fourth dorsal vertebra (99 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra (115 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (121 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (123 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (127 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (123 mm), complete to incomplete dorsal ribs (50-960 mm), gastralium, sacrum (120, 118, 105, 105, 128 mm), first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra (106 mm), third caudal vertebra (106 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (105 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (108 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (110 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (118 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (123 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (125 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (126 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (126 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra, thirteenth caudal vertebra, fourteenth caudal vertebra (115 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (114 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (115 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (112 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (110 mm), nineteenth caudal vertebra (105 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (104 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (103 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra (103 mm), twenty-third caudal vertebra (100 mm), twenty-fourth caudal vertebra (100 mm), twenty-fifth caudal vertebra, twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (98 mm), twenty-seventh caudal vertebra (97 mm), twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (90 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra, thirtieth caudal vertebra (85 mm), thirty-first caudal vertebra (82 mm), thirty-second caudal vertebra (80 mm), thirty-third caudal vertebra (75 mm), thirty-fourth caudal vertebra (70 mm), ten chevrons, scapulae (760, 740 mm), coracoids (250 mm), ilia (760, 760 mm), pubes (795, 805 mm), ischia (770, 750 mm), femur (980 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) differs from Yangchuanosaurus in- proportionally long, low skull; very tall dorsal vertebral neural spines.
differs from Sinraptor dongi in- sinuous, rugose nasal crest; marked margin of jugal antorbital fossa; more horizontally oriented pubic boot.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1985 and initially thought to be a specimen of Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis (e.g. fig. 57 in Dong, 1992). While initially assigned to Yangchuanosaurus in its description (Gao, 1992), Currie and Zhao (1994) placed hepingensis in their new genus Sinraptor. Note that while volume 30(10) of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences lists its date as October 1993, it was not published until February or March of 1994. Gao (1999) and Xing et al. (2009) disagree, placing both hepingensis and dongi in Yangchuanosaurus. Carrano et al. (2012) found hepingensis, Shidaisaurus, Siamotyrannus and Metriacanthosaurus to be closer to Sinraptor than to Yangchuanosaurus. Thus Sinraptor cannot merely be synonymized with Yangchuanosaurus without including all metriacanthosaurids, in which case Metriacanthosaurus would have priority.
References- Dong, 1992. Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Ocean Press/Springer-Verlag, Beijing/Berlin. 188 pp.
Gao, 1992. Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis, a new species of carnosaur from Zigong, Sichuan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 30, 313-324.
Currie and Zhao, 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 30(10), 2037-2081.
Gao, 1999. A complete carnosaur skeleton from Zigong, Sichuan. Sichuan Science & Technology Press, Chengdu. 80 pp.
Xing, Dong, Peng, Shu, Hu and Jiang, 2009. A scapular fracture in Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Geological Bulletin of China. 28(10), 1390-1395.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

Allosauridae sensu Padian and Hutchinson, 1997
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi) (modified)

Allosauria Paul, 1988
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, -Metriacanthosaurus parkeri) (Hendrickx, Hartman and Mateus, 2015)
Comments- Paul (1988) used Allosauria for what would now be called Carnosauria, though he excluded metriacanthosaurids and included Ornitholestes, Proceratosaurus and tyrannosaurids. As Paul's Allosauridae included known carcharodontosaurids (Shaochilong, Acrocanthosaurus, Altispinax, Labocania and Carcharodontosaurus), Carrano et al. (2012) used Allosauria for the allosaurid+carcharodontosaurid clade of carnosaurs. They provided no definition, though (Allosaurus fragilis + Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, -Metriacanthosaurus parkeri) would be the obvious choice and was later published by Hendrickx et al. (2015). Several analyses such as Allain (2002) have instead found carcharodontosaurids to group with metriacanthosaurids to the exclusion of allosaurids, which takes six more steps when enforced in Carrano et al.'s matrix, so is still quite possible.
References- Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Hendrickx, Hartman and Mateus, 2015. An overview of non-avian theropod discoveries and classification. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 12(1), 1-73.

Carcharodontosauridae Stromer, 1931
Definition-
(Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Holtz et al., 2004)
Other definitions- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
(Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Neovenator salerii, Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010)
= "Acrocanthosauridae" Molnar, 2001
= Carcharodontosauridae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti) (modified)
= Carcharodontosauridae sensu Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi, Passer domesticus)
= "Carcharodontosauria" Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2009 online
= Carcharodontosauria Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Neovenator salerii <- Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010)
Comments- Brusatte and Sereno's (2008) definition differs from Holtz et al.'s (2004) by including Passer as an external specifier. The only times carcharodontosaurids have been placed in Coelurosauria is when tyrannosaurids were as well (Bakker et al., 1988; Paul, 1988), and they have often been placed closer to tyrannosaurids than to Allosaurus or Passer (Paul, 1988; Kurzanov, 1989; Molnar et al., 1990). So Tyrannosaurus would be a more useful tertiary external specifier than Passer. The remote possibility of a relationship to ceratosaurs (Bonaparte et al., 1990) might suggest Carnotaurus should be used as an additional external specifier.
Molnar (2001) proposed Acrocanthosauridae for at least Acrocanthosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus, but did not provide a definition or diagnosis (ICZN Article 13.1.1), so the taxon is a nomen nudum.
Benson et al. (2010) found megaraptorans grouped with Neovenator as basal carcharodontosaurids, but redefined Carcharodontosauridae to include only those taxa closer to Carcharodontosaurus than to Neovenator. They then gave their new taxon Carcharodontosauria the tradition definition for Carcharodontosauridae. These taxonomic changes are here seen as unecessary and not followed. Benson et al.'s paper was originally released online in November 2009 but not officialy published until January 2010.
References- Molnar, 2001. Theropod paleopathology: A literature survey. In Tanke and Carpenter (eds). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press. 337-363.
Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010. A new clade of archaic large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic. Naturwissenschaften. 97(1), 71-78.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Calvo et al., 2004)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gorro Frigio Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material- (MEF 1157) cervicals, caudals, scapula
Reference- Calvo, Porfiri, Veralli, Novas and Pobletei, 2004. Phylogenetic status of Megaraptor namunhuaiquii Novas based on a new specimen from Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 565-575.

unnamed possible carcharodontosaurid (Buffetaut, Mechin and Salessy, 1988)
Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Gres a Reptiles Formation, France

Material- maxilla (240 mm)
Comments- Originally described as an abelisaurid, but probably a carcharodontosaurid instead (Carrano and Sampson, 2002).
References- Buffetaut, Mechin and Mechin-Salessy, 1988. Un dinosaure théropode d'affinités gondwaniennes dans le Crétacé supérieur de Provence [A theropod dinosaur of Gondwanan affinities in the Upper Cretaceous of Provence]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences à Paris, Série II. 306, 153-158.
Carrano and Sampson, 2002. Ceratosaurs: A global perspective. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 41A.

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Russell, 1996)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Gres Rouges Infracenomaniens, Morocco

Material- (CMN 41859) dentary fragment
(CMN 41861) dentary fragment (teeth FABL 6-14 mm )
Comments- Originally described as cf. Majungasaurus sp., these are carcharodontosaurid instead (Carrano and Sampson, 2002).
References- Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. 18, 349-402.
Carrano and Sampson, 2002. Ceratosaurs: A global perspective. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(3), 41A.

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2012)
Berraisian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Sao Khua Formation, Thailand

Material- (PRC 61) maxillary fragment
Reference- Buffetaut and Suteethorn, 2012. A carcharodontosaurid theropod (Dinosauria, Saurischia) in the Sao Khua Formation (Early Cretaceous, Barremian) of Thailand. 10th Annual Meeting of the European
Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. Fundamental. 20, 27-30.

Neovenatoridae Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010
Definition- (Neovenator salerii <- Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi) (Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010)
= "Neovenatoridae" Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2009 online
Comments- Benson et al.'s paper was originally released online in November 2009 but not officially published until January 2010.
Reference- Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010. A new clade of archaic large-bodied predatory dinosaurs (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) that survived to the latest Mesozoic. Naturwissenschaften. 97(1), 71-78.
Neovenator Hutt, Martill and Barker, 1996
= "Neovenator" Naish, 1996
N. salerii Hutt, Martill and Barker, 1996
= "Neovenator salerii" Naish, 1996
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Wessex Formation, England

Holotype- (BMNH R10001) (~7.5 m; subadult or adult) teeth, incomplete fifth cervical vertebra (62 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (73 mm), first dorsal vertebra (71 mm), incomplete second dorsal vertebra (62 mm), fourth dorsal transverse processes, partial fifth dorsal vertebra (87 mm), incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra (77 mm), incomplete seventh dorsal vertebra (93 mm), incomplete eighth dorsal vertebra (89 mm), incomplete twelfth dorsal vertebra (115 mm), partial thirteenth dorsal vertebra (117 mm), three or four sacral centra, caudal vertebrae, fragmentary ilia, proximal pubis, pubic shaft fragments, ischial shaft fragments, distal ischia
....(MIWG 6348) (skull ~798 mm) premaxillae (87 mm), incomplete maxilla, incomplete nasal, incomplete palatine, anterior dentary (lost), teeth, axis (58 mm), partial sixth cervical vertebra (76 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (66 mm), incomplete ninth cervical vertebra (75 mm), proximal cervical rib, ninth dorsal vertebra (92 mm), incomplete tenth dorsal vertebra (95 mm), fourteenth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), two partial dorsal ribs, rib fragments, ten-fifteen fragmentary gastralia, partial first caudal vertebra (109 mm), second caudal vertebra (99 mm), incomplete third caudal vertebra (105 mm), incomplete fourth caudal vertebra (109 mm), incomplete fifth caudal vertebra (107 mm), incomplete sixth caudal vertebra (107 mm), incomplete seventh(?) caudal vertebra (106 mm), ninth(?) caudal neural arch, incomplete fourteenth(?) caudal vertebra (103 mm), incomplete seventeenth(?) caudal vertebra (103 mm), eighteenth(?) caudal centrum (102 mm), incomplete twenty-first(?) caudal vertebra (94 mm), incomplete twenty-second(?) caudal vertebra (95 mm), fused twenty-fifth(?) (91 mm) and twenty-sixth caudal vertebra (92 mm) and twenty-sixth chevron, incomplete twenty-seventh(?) caudal vertebra (88 mm), twenty-eighth(?) caudal vertebra (81 mm), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (79 mm), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (77 mm), distal caudal vertebra (75 mm), distal caudal vertebra (73 mm), distal caudal vertebra (71 mm), incomplete distal caudal vertebra (68 mm), partial proximal chevron, two mid chevrons (~100 mm), distal chevron, incomplete scapula (~505 mm), incomplete coracoid (140 mm), proximal ischium, femora (730, 730 mm), tibiae (680, 685 mm), fibula (618 mm), metatarsal II (315 mm), phalanx II-1 (109 mm), phalanx II-2 (88 mm), proximal metatarsal III (~343 mm), pedal unguals III (one partial; 117 mm), metatarsal IV (325 mm), phalanx IV-1 (83 mm), phalanx IV-2 (69 mm), phalanges IV-3 (52 mm), phalanx IV-4 (34 mm), pedal ungual IV (82 mm), metatarsal V (150 mm)
Paratype- (MIWG 6352) (subadult) second dorsal centrum, fifth dorsal centrum (~77 mm), partial seventh dorsal neural arch, several rib fragments, fused second-fourth sacral centra, first or fifth sacral centrum, sacral neural arch, partial chevron, axial fragments, partial ilium, pubes (560 mm), proximal ischium
Referred- ?(Dinosaur Expeditions Centre coll.) incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (Mattsson pers. comm., 2015)
?(Dinosaur Expeditions Centre coll.) distal tibia (Mattsson pers. comm., 2015)
?(IWCMS 2000.1108) distal ____ (Brusatte et al., 2008)
?(IWCMS 2002.186) vertebral fragments including two anterior cervical neural arches, long bones (Brusatte et al., 2008)
?(MIWG 4199) (~10 m) pedal phalanx (Hutt, 2001)
?(MIWG 5121) tooth (Brusatte et al., 2008)
(MIWG 5470) (subadult or adult) incomplete ninth cervical neural arch, incomplete eighth dorsal vertebra, pedal phalanx III-1 (Hutt, 2001)
(MIWG 6348) proximal caudal vertebra (Hutt, 2001)
Diagnosis- (after Hutt et al., 1996) five premaxillary teeth (also in Allosaurus); external naris twice as long as high; maxilla with large maxillary fenestra approximately one sixth the length of the maxillary tooth row; tooth crowns one quarter total tooth length; pedal unguals with groove on extensor surface.
(after Naish et al., 2001) premaxilla with accessory interpremaxillary peg and socket articulation in the dorsal region of the symphysis.
(after Brusatte et al., 2008) transverse expansion of the anterior articular surface of the axial intercentrum; lateral foramina on the anterior surface of the odontoid; small single foramen on the lateral surface of the axial neural spine; fusion of the cervical ribs to the posterior cervical vertebrae; camellate internal texture exposed externally on parapophyseal facets of eighth and ninth cervical vertebrae (possibly due to fusion with ribs); ventral surfaces of anterior dorsal vertebrae developed as sharp ridges, not inset from the lateral surface of the centra; hypapophyses of anterior dorsal vertebrae developed as low mound-like eminences; curved flanges emerging laterally from pre- and postzygapophyseal facets of posterior dorsal vertebrae; scapula-coracoid glenoid fossa that is wider mediolaterally than long anteroposteriorly; shelf adjacent to the preacetabular notch on the medial surface of the ilium; distal ischial boot in which the left and right ischia are conjoined anteriorly but diverge posterolatcrally; femoral head oriented anteromedially and inclined proximally; robust ridge on the external surface of the lesser trochanter of the femur; thumbprint-shaped depression on posterior surface of femoral shaft lateral to the proximal end of the fourth trochanter; proximodistally short, notch-like extensor groove and almost flat anterior surface of distal end of femur; suboval rugosity on medial surface of distal tibia; anteroposteriorly pinched proximal portion of the lateral malleolus of the distal tibia; ventral spine on anterolateral crest of fibular condyle of tibia; concave lateral surface of metatarsal II for articulation with metatarsal III.
Other diagnoses- Hutt et al. (1996) included a large external naris in their diagnosis, but Brusatte et al. (2008) noted it was similar in size to most carnosaurs. Posterior dorsal centra that are pleurocoelous are found in other carcharodontosaurids as well.
Naish et al. (2001) included high dorsolateral nasal crests in their diagnosis, but Brusatte et al. (2008) note these are also present in Allosaurus. Brusatte et al. also note serrations which complete across tooth tips are now known in many other theropod taxa.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1978 and collected over the next two decades, becoming accessioned in two museums. Hutt (1999) and Martill and Naish (2001) referred to the dentary in the holotype as BMNH R10001, but it has apparently never been stored at the BMNH and may be an MIWG specimen. The paratype was discovered in 1987 and originally thought to be a different species (Hutt et al., 1990), as the holotype was thought to have a small pubic boot based on an incorrectly identified ischium. MIWG 5470 was discovered in 1985.
Though generally believed to be a basal carcharodontosaurid now, Neovenator was originally assigned to Allosauridae. This requires 7 more steps when enforced in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, so is less likely but still possible.
References- Hutt, Simmonds and Hullman, 1990. Predatory dinosaurs from the Isle of Wight: Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society. 9, 137-146.
Naish, 1996. Isle of Wight. Dinosaur Discoveries. 1, 15.
Hutt, Martill and Barker, 1996. The first European allosauroid dinosaur (Lower Cretaceous, Wealden Group, England). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatsheft. 1996(10), 635-644.
Hutt, 1999. Neovenator salerii: A new theropod dinosaur from the Wealden of the Isle of Wight: Its status and significance for theropod evolution. Masters thesis. University of Portsmouth. 196 pp.
Hutt, 2001. Catalogue of Wealden Group Dinosauria in the Museum of Isle of Wight Geology. In Martill and Naish (eds). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association. 411-422.
Martill and Naish, 2001. The geology of the Isle of Wight. In Martill and Naish (eds.). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association. 25-43.
Naish, Hutt and Martill, 2001. Saurischian dinosaurs 2: Theropods. In Martill and Naish (eds.). Dinosaurs of the Isle of Wight. The Palaeontological Association. 242-309.
Sweetman, 2004. The first record of velociraptorine dinosaurs (Saurischia, Theropoda) from the Wealden (Early Cretaceous, Barremian) of Southern England. Cretaceous Research. 25, 353-364.
Brusatte, Benson and Hutt, 2008. The osteology of Neovenator salerii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Wealden (Barremian) of the Isle ofWight. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society. 162(631), 1-166.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Barker, Dyke, Naish, Newham and Katsamenis, 2015. Complex neurovascular network in the rostrum of Neovenator salerii. SVPCA 2015 abstracts, 78.

Carcharodontosauridae sensu Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Neovenator salerii, Allosaurus fragilis, Sinraptor dongi)

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Gasca, Canudo and Moreno-Azanza, 2014)
Early Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Mirambel Formation, Spain
Material
- (MPZ 2014/235) distal femur
Reference- Gasca, Canudo and Moreno-Azanza, 2014. A large-bodied theropod (Tetanurae: Carcharodontosauria) from the Mirambel Formation (Barremian) of Spain. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen.273(1), 13-23.

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Mo, Huang, Xie and Buffetaut, 2014)
Aptian?, Early Cretaceous
Xinlong Formation, Guangxi, China
Material
- (NHMG 10858) lateral tooth (71x37x17 mm)
Reference- Mo, Huang, Xie and Buffetaut, 2014. A megatheropod tooth from the Early Cretaceous of Fusui, Guangxi, Southern China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition). 88(1), 6-12.

"Osteoporosia" Singer, 2015 online
"O. gigantea" Singer, 2015 online
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem beds, Morocco

Material- (JP Cr340) partial posterior dorsal neural arch
Comments- This was discovered in 2009 and briefly described online by Singer (2015), on the website of a theme park chain based on a specimen collected and owned by the chain. He assigns this unofficial taxon to Carnosauria, and indeed it strongly resembles the posterior dorsal of Mapusaurus. Thus it may belong to the contemporaneous Carcharodontosaurus or Saurionops, but cannot be compared to either.
Reference- Singer, 2015 online. JuraPark na tropie nowych dinozaurow z Maroka. http://jurapark.pl/jurapark-na-tropie-nowych-dinozaurow-z-maroka/

unnamed clade (Altispinax dunkeri + Concavenator corcovatus + Eocarcharia dinops + Sauroniops pachytholus)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) squared anterior margin of antorbital fossa (unknown in Altispinax and Sauroniops)
(after Cau et al., 2012) prefrontal facet of the frontal restricted to the anterior end of the lateral surface (unknown in Altispinax and Concavenator); wide nasal-frontal contact reaching the posteromedial end of the nasal process of the frontal (unknown in Altispinax and Concavenator); preorbital facet that is deepest in the anterior end of the facet (unknown in Altispinax and Concavenator).
(suggested) accessory centrodiapophyseal lamina on the transverse processes of the posterior dorsal vertebrae (unknown in Eocarcharia and Sauroniops); eleventh and twelfth dorsal neural spines highly elongate (five times the height of the centra), while ninth dorsal neural spine is short (unknown in Eocarcharia and Sauroniops); firm contact between apexes of eleventh and twelfth dorsal neural spines (unknown in Eocarcharia and Sauroniops).

Altispinax Huene, 1923
= Becklespinax Olshevsky, 1991
A. dunkeri Huene, 1923
= Acrocanthasaurus altispinax Paul 1988
= Becklespinax altispinax (Paul, 1988) Olshevsky, 1991
= Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum" Pickering, 1984 vide Pickering, 1995
= Altispinax altispinax (Paul, 1988) Rauhut, 2000
Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Hastings Beds Group, England

Holotype- (BMNH R1828) (~5 m) tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, two vertebrae (lost), two ribs (lost)
Diagnosis- (after Naish, 2011) posterior dorsal spines transversely expanded at tips; large. rectangular hyposphene in posterior dorsals (unknown in Concavenator).
(after Cuesta et al., 2013) (compared to Concavenator) less ventrally constricted centra; anteriorly angled posterior dorsal neural spines; posterior dorsal neural spines distally expanded anteroposteriorly; posterior dorsal neural spines transversely broader.
Other diagnoses- Olshevsky (1991) listed "firm contact between the apexes of the neural spines of vertebrae #9 and 10 (and, presumably, later vertebrae in the series)", but this is also present in Concavenator (though the vertebrae are 11 and 12 in the latter genus and presumably Becklespinax too).
Comments- This taxon has a complicated nomenclatural history. Altispinax was initially proposed by Huene (1923) for "the species described as M. dunkeri by Lydekker (Dames)" ... "distinguished from Megalosaurus by its enormously high neural spines in the dorsal region" (referencing three high-spined dorsal vertebrae catalogued as BMNH R1828), which was misunderstood by future authors as proposing a new genus for Dames' (1884) Megalosaurus dunkeri. As M. dunkeri's holotype is an incomparable tooth, Stovall and Langston (1950) tried to designate BMNH R1828 as the type of "Altispinax dunkeri (Dames)", but Dames' species already had a holotype which could not be replaced without an ICZN petition. Paul (1988) solved this by creating the new species altispinax for the vertebrae. Paul placed altispinax in Acrocanthosaurus, but Olshevsky (1991) disagreed and created the new genus Becklespinax for these vertebrae. Both of these options left Dames' tooth as Altispinax dunkeri, which has been the consensus for over a decade. Rauhut (2000; published as 2003) used a quote from Huene (1932) to justify that author's intent to base Altispinax on the vertebrae, and so created the combination Altispinax altispinax for them. Finally, Maisch (2016) recognized that Huene's initial quote had been misunderstood, proposing Altispinax for "the species described as M. dunkeri by Lydekker (Dames)", not the species M. dunkeri (Dames) itself. Utilizing ICZN Article 11.10 ("If an author employs a specific or subspecific name for the type species of a new nominal genus-group taxon, but deliberately in the sense of a previous misidentification of it, then the author's employment of the name is deemed to denote a new nominal species and the specific name is available with its own author and date as though it were newly proposed in combination with the new genus-group name"), Maisch determined the species dunkeri Huene, 1923 is deemed to be different than dunkeri Dames, 1884. Thus Altispinax dunkeri Huene, 1923 is a new taxon different from Megalosaurus dunkeri Dames, 1884. Note Kuhn (1939) was the first to designate dunkeri as the type species of Altispinax (Huene also initially referred Megalosaurus oweni to it, now the type species of Valdoraptor).
Pickering (1995) attempted to make BMNH R1828 the lectotype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum", which included as paratypes the holotype of Valdoraptor oweni and several additional specimens (BMNH R604, 604a-b, 604d). However, the species altispinax, dunkeri and oweni have priority (Pickering incorrectly considered them nomina rejecta, which cannot occur without an ICZN decision), and there is no evidence these specimens are conspecific. This makes Pickering's species (which is a nomen nudum in any case) an objective junior synonym of Altispinax dunkeri.
Note abundant additional material was referred to Megalosaurus dunkeri by Lydekker (1888), then Altispinax dunkeri by Huene (1926), but has not been described in detail so cannot be compared to the holotypes of either. The contemporaneous Hastings Beds specimens are listed below, while the Weald Clay (Belgium, England) and Lower Greensand (England) material is listed as Neotheropoda here.
The holotype dorsals were first referred to Megalosaurus bucklandii by Owen (1855, 1857), before the nomenclatural saga of Altispinax described above began. After decades of being assigned largely by default to Megalosauridae, or to Spinosauridae due to the neural spine elongation, BMNH R1828 has more recently been assigned to Allosauridae as Acrocanthosaurus (Paul, 1988), Eustreptospondylidae based on similarity to Piatnitzkysaurus (Olshevsky, 1991), Allosauroidea (Naish, 1999) or Carcharodontosauridae (Naish, 2011; his Carcharodontosauria). The latter is supported by its similarity to the recently discovered Concavenator. However, Carrano et al. (2012) believe the anterior dorsal neural spine is broken, lessening the resemblence. While Carrano et al. state that within Tetanurae it can only be excluded from Spinosauridae and Carcharodontosauridae, when entered conservatively into their matrix it emerges as a carnosaur and most often sister to Concavenator and Eocarcharia. The discrepancy is due to the authors stating Altispinax is unlike carcharodontosaurids in lacking posterior dorsal pleurocoels, but Concavenator also lacks these.
References- Owen, 1855. Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck Formations. Part II. Dinosauria (Iguanodon) (Wealden). Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 8, 1-54.
Owen, 1857. Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia of the Wealden and Purbeck Formations. Part III. Dinosauria (Megalosaurus) (Wealden). Palaeontographical Society Monographs. 9, 1-26.
Dames, 1884. Vorlegung eines Zahnes von Megalosaurus aus dem Wealden des Deisters. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. 1884, 186-188.
Huene, 1923. Carnivorous Saurischia in Europe since the Triassic. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 34, 449-458.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Kuhn, 1939. Saurischia. In Quenstedt (ed.). Fossilium Catalogus, I: Animalia, pars 87, 124 pp.
Stovall and Langston, 1950. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, a new genus and species of Lower Cretaceous Theropoda from Oklahoma. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(3), 696-728.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Olshevsky, 1991. A revision of the parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, excluding the advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings. 2, 196 pp.
Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry, A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.
Naish, 1999. Studies on Wealden Group theropods - an investigation into the historical taxonomy and phylogenetic affinities of new and previously neglected specimens. MPhil thesis, University of Portsmouth. [pp]
Rauhut, 2000. The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia). PhD thesis. University of Bristol. 440 pp.
Naish, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs. In Batten (ed.). English Wealden Fossils. The Palaeontological Association. 526-559.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cuesta, Ortega and Sanz, 2013. Solving the synonymy issue in Concavenator corcovatus and Becklespinax altispinax, two distinct theropods from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 110.
Maisch, 2016. The nomenclatural status of the carnivorous dinosaur genus Altispinax v. Huene, 1923 (Saurischia, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of England. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen, 280(2), 215-219.
A? sp. indet. (Benton and Spencer, 1995)
Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Hastings Beds, England

Material- (BMNH R1954) teeth, limb elements
teeth, vertebrae
Comments- This material was referred to Altispinax dunkeri without justification by Benton and Spencer (1995).
Reference- Benton and Spencer, 1995. Fossil Reptiles of Great Britain. Chapman & Hall, London. 386 pp.
A? sp. indet. (Lydekker, 1888)
Middle Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Wadhurst Clay of the Hastings Beds, England

Material- (BMNH 39213) tooth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R604; intended paratype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum") two teeth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R604a; intended paratype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum") incomplete anterior dorsal vertebra (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R604b; intended paratype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum") incomplete scapula (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R604c; intended paratype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum") partial tibia (Lydekker, 1888)
....(BMNH R604d; intended paratype of Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum") metatarsal IV (245 mm) (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R641) three teeth (Lydekker, 1888)
(BMNH R1525) metatarsal II (Huene, 1926)
(BMNH R1525a) incomplete mid caudal vertebra (Huene, 1926)
Comments- Most of this material was referred to Megalosaurus dunkeri by Lydekker (1888), then Altispinax dunkeri by Huene (1926), but has not been described in detail so cannot be compared to the holotypes of either. They may belong to Baryonyx, Altispinax, Valdoraptor, Neovenator, Calamosaurus, Eotyrannus or another Wealden theropod. BMNH R604a, 604c-d and 1525 were referred to Valdoraptor (then Megalosaurus) oweni by Lydekker (1890), but this has not been accepted by recent workers. Pickering (1995) intended to use the 604 specimens as paratypes of his proposed species Altispinax "lydekkerhueneorum", but this is a nomen nudum and objective junior synonym of Altispinax dunkeri (see entry).
References- Lydekker, 1888. Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, S.W., Part 1. Containing the Orders Ornithosauria, Crocodilia, Dinosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia, and Proterosauria. British Museum of Natural History, London. 309 pp.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous Formations, principally in Europe. Revista del Museo de La Plata. 29, 1-167.
Pickering, 1995. Jurassic Park: Unauthorized Jewish Fractals in Philopatry, A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project, 2nd revised printing. Capitola, California. 478 pp.

Concavenator Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2010
C. corcovatus Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2010
Late Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Calizas de La Huerguina Formation, Spain
Holotype
- (MCCM-LH 6666) incomplete skull, partial mandible, ten cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, thirteen dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, gastralia, five sacral vertebrae, thirty caudal vertebrae, twenty-six chevrons, scapulae, coracoid, humeri, radius, ulna, metacarpal I, phalanx I-1, metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, manual ungual II, metacarpal III, phalanx III-3, manual ungual III, ilium, pubes, ischium, femora (one incomplete), tibiae (one incomplete), incomplete fibula, astragalus, calcaneum, two distal tarsals, metatarsals II, phalanges II-1 (one proximal), phalanx II-2 fragment, metatarsals III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, partial phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V, pedal claw sheaths, scale impressions, smaller theropod vertebrae
Diagnosis- (after Ortega et al., 2010) four nasal recesses, three of them connected (unknown in Altispinax); alarge, rounded, thickened postorbital brow occupying one-third of the orbit (unknown in Altispinax); relatively high, anteriorly directed neurapophyses of second and third caudal vertebrae (unknown in Altispinax); small, thorn-like posterior process at base of each neurapophysis in proximal caudal vertebrae (unknown in Altispinax).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) differs from Altispinax in- posterior dorsal centra bear large lateral fossae (although no foramina); posterior dorsal neural spines have less curved anterior and posterior margins at their bases; apices of the tallest dorsal neural spines are anteroposteriorly narrow, curving towards a single apex formed from multiple spines.
(proposed) tenth dorsal neural spine one third as tall as eleventh dorsal neural spine; eleventh dorsal neural spine strongly tapered distally in lateral view; eleventh and twelfth dorsal neural spines appressed except at base.
Other diagnoses- Ortega et al. (2010) also included "tall neurapophyses of the eleventh and twelfth dorsal vertebrae (five times the height of the centra)" in their diagnosis, but this is also true in Altispinax.
Comments- Ortega et al. (2010) identified a line along the lateral side of Concavenator's ulna as possessing quill knobs, which are otherwise unknown in non-paravian taxa. However, both Mortimer (online, 2010) and Naish (online, 2010) independantly regard the structure as an intermuscular line instead, with the former identifying it more precisely as the line between the extensor carpi ulnaris and the flexor ulnaris. This is due the more anterior position of the line, which coincides with the intermuscular boundary on Alligator and non-maniraptoran theropods, but not with quill knobs in paravians.
References- Mortimer, online 2010. http://theropoddatabase.blogspot.com/2010/09/concavenator-part-ii-becklespinax.html
Naish, online 2010. http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/09/concavenator_incredible_allosauroid.php
Ortega, Escaso and Sanz, 2010. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Nature. 467, 203-206.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Cuesta, Ortega and Sanz, 2013. Solving the synonymy issue in Concavenator corcovatus and Becklespinax altispinax, two distinct theropods from the Lower Cretaceous of Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 110.
Cuesta, Diaz-Martinez, Ortega and Sanz, 2014. Phylogenetic implications of the bird-like podotheca of Concavenator corcovatus (Theropoda, Carcharodontosauridae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2014, 114-115.
Cuesta, Ortega and Sanz, 2015. Ulnar bumps of Concavenator: Quill knobs or muscular scars? Myological reconstruction of the forelimb of Concavenator corcovatus (Lower Cretaceous, Las Hoyas, Spain). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2015, 111-112.

Eocarcharia Sereno and Brusatte, 2008
E. dinops Sereno and Brusatte, 2008
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation of the Tegama Group, Niger
Holotype
- (MNN GAD2) (~6-8 m) postorbital (163 mm tall)
Paratypes- (MNN GAD3) postorbital
(MNN GAD4) partial postorbital
(MNN GAD5) partial postorbital
(MNN GAD6) partial postorbital
(MNN GAD7) incomplete maxilla (528 mm)
(MNN GAD8) maxillary fragment
(MNN GAD9) maxillary fragment
(MNN GAD10) prefrontal (55 mm), frontal (102 mm)
(MNN GAD11) frontoparietal, orbitosphenoid fragments
(MNN GAD12) three teeth
(MNN GAD13) tooth fragment
(MNN GAD14) tooth (48 mm)
Referred- ?(MNN GAD15) tooth (Sereno and Brusatte, 2008)
? teeth (Sereno et al., 1994)
? vertebrae, pelvic elements including pubis (Sereno, unpublished)
Diagnosis- (after Sereno and Brusatte, 2008) enlarged subtriangular laterally exposed promaxillary fenestra larger in size than the maxillary fenestra; circular accessory pneumatic fenestra on the posterodorsal ramus of the maxilla; dorsoventral expansion of the antorbital fossa ventral to the promaxillary and maxillary fenestrae; postorbital brow accentuated by a finely textured boss, positioned above the posterodorsal corner of the orbit; postorbital medial process with a plate-shaped projection fitted to an articular slot on the frontal; postorbital articulation for the jugal that includes a narrow laterally-facing facet; enlarged prefrontal lacking the ventral process with subquadrate exposure on the dorsal skull roof and within the orbit (limiting the anterior ramus of the frontal to the roof over the olfactory bulbs); low protuberance on the frontoparietal suture.
Comments- Sereno et al. (1994) noted mid-sized carcharodontosaurid teeth from the Elrhaz Formation. Sereno later mentioned carcharodontosaurid remains from Gadoufaoua in an online update to his 2000 Project Exploration dig in Niger. These included teeth, jaw bones and a postorbital (which are elements described for Eocarcharia), but also vertebrae and pelvic elements. A pubis was photographed in situ. These may be elements later referred to Kryptops, as no Eocarcharia postcrania were described in Sereno and Brusatte (2008). Kryptops' pelvis and dorsals do look somewhat carnosaurian, but the in situ pubis does not appear to be the Kryptops specimen.
Novas et al. (2013) believed there was not enough evidence to refer the maxillary and dental material to Eocarcharia, but given the presence of a single type of carcharodontosaurid skull roof in the formation, it seems probable the jaw bones belong to the same taxon.
References- Sereno, Beck, Dutheil, Gado, Larsson, Lyon, Marcot, Rauhut, Sadleir, Sidor, Varricchio, Wilson and Wilson, 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of the spinosaurids. Science. 282(5392), 1298-1302.
Sereno, online 2000. http://www.projectexploration.org/niger2000/10_03_2000_2.htm
Brusatte and Sereno, 2006. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian) of Niger. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 46A.
Sereno and Brusatte, 2008. Basal abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation of Niger. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53(1), 15-46.
Novas, Agnolin, Ezcurra, Porfiri and Canale, 2013. Evolution of the carnivorous dinosaurs during the Cretaceous: The evidence from Patagonia. Cretaceous Research. 45, 174-215.

Sauroniops Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2013
S. pachytholus Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2013
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem beds, Morocco

Holotype- (MPM 2594) frontal (186 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Cau et al., 2013) dorsoventrally thickened frontal (with the depth of the body ranging between 28%, along the medial suture, and 38%, at the level of the anteromedial margin of the supratemporal fossa, of bone length); nasal processes of the frontal with a transversely convex dorsal surface and completely separated medially by the posteromedial processes of nasal extended along 40% of the frontal length and reaching the frontal body; thick dome-like eminence in the anterolateral corner of the dorsal surface of the frontal at the level of the prefrontal-lacrimal articulations; anterolateral margin of the lateral surface of the frontal with a narrow vertical lamina separating the prefrontal facet from an elliptical fossa in the lacrimal facet; prefrontal facet of the frontal trapezoidal, barely visible in ventral view, mostly restricted to the anterodorsal margin of the lateral surface of the bone, and not participating in the orbital fossa; frontal with interdigitate suture for prefrontal restricted to the anteroventral corner of the facet, formed by a low shelf running along the posterolateral margin of the nasal process and a small finger-like projection; hypertrophied, D-shaped lacrimal facet of the frontal bordering the whole posterolateral exposure of the prefrontal facet and with maximum depth that is four times the depth of the anterior half of the postorbital facet; dorsal surface of the frontal anterior to the anteromedial margin of supratemporal fossa raised and facing anterodorsally, describing with the dorsal dome a posteromedially-anterolaterally directed saddle-shaped concavity, and confluent with a series of low rounded rugosities placed posteriorly to the nasal facet.
Comments- Cau et al. (2012, 2013) found this specimen to be most similar to Eocarcharia.
References- Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2012. Evidence of a new carcharodontosaurid from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57(3), 661-665.
Cau, Dalla Vecchia and Fabbri, 2013. A thick-skulled theropod (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco with implications for carcharodontosaurid cranial evolution. Cretaceous Research. 40, 251-260.

Acrocanthosaurus Stovall and Langston, 1950
= "Acrocanthus" Langston, 1947
Comments- Goodwin et al. (1999) referred teeth from the Mugher Mudstone of Ethiopia to cf. Acrocanthosaurus sp., but these can only be identified as Tetanurae indet..
Reference- Goodwin, Clemens, Hutchison, Wood, Zavada, Kemp, Duffin and Schaff, 1999. Mesozoic continental vertebrates with associated palynostratigraphic dates from the northwestern Ethiopian plateau. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(4), 728-741.
A. atokensis Stovall and Langston, 1950
= "Acracanthus atokaensis" Langston, 1947
Late Aptian-Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
Antlers Formation, Oklahoma, US

Holotype- (MOU 8-0-S9 or OMNH 10146) (9.9 m) lacrimal, partial jugal, partial postorbital, incomplete squamosal, frontals, parietals, braincase, ectopterygoid, articular, fragment of surangular, fragment of angular, atlantal intercentrum, axial fragment, partial third cervical vertebra (96 mm), incomplete fourth cervical vertebra (98 mm), incomplete fifth cervical vertebra (123 mm), sixth cervical neural arch, partial seventh cervical centrum (153 mm), incomplete eighth cervical vertebra (158 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (168 mm), incomplete tenth cervical vertebra (153 mm), three incomplete cervical ribs, fifth dorsal vertebra (107 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (110 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal centrum (128 mm), thirteenth dorsal centrum (125 mm), eight dorsal neural spines, five posterior dorsal ribs, gastralium, two caudal centra, two proximal chevrons, coracoid, pubes (~838 mm), ischium (~621 mm), distal femur (~950 mm), tibia (~865 mm), fibulae (801 mm), astragalus, metatarsal III (416 mm)
Paratype- (MOU 8-0-S8 or OMNH 10147) (11.29 m) two dorsal centra, four dorsal neural spines, eight posterior dorsal ribs, first caudal vertebra, second caudal vertebra (128 mm), third caudal vertebra (138 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (140 mm), ninth caudal vertebra (149 mm), tenth caudal vertebra (146 mm), eleventh caudal vertebra (141 mm), twelfth caudal vertebra (140 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra, nineteenth caudal vertebra (131 mm), twentieth caudal vertebra (134 mm), twenty-first caudal vertebra (135 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra, twenty-third caudal vertebra (124 mm), proximal chevron, pubes, proximal femur (~950 mm), fragmentary tibia (~958 mm), metatarsal II (416 mm), metatarsal III (445 mm), phalanx III-1 (145 mm)
Referred- (NCSM 14345; OMNH 10168) (11.5 m, adult) skull (1.29 m), mandibles (1.315 m), presacral vertebral fragments, cervical rib, several partial dorsal ribs, gastralia fragments, over fourteen caudal vertebrae (120-160 mm), six chevrons, scapula (970 mm), coracoid (360 mm), humerus (370 mm), radius (220 mm), ulna (255 mm), radiale, ulnare, semilunate carpal, metacarpal I (62 mm), phalanx I-1 (111 mm), proximal manual ungual I, metacarpal II (116 mm), phalanx II-1 (101 mm), proximal manual ungual II (124, 144 mm), metacarpal III (89 mm), phalanx III-1 (50 mm), phalanx III-2 (42 mm), incomplete femur (~1.277 m), incomplete tibia, partial astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal I (111 mm), phalanx I-1 (70 mm), pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (410 mm), phalanx II-1 (55 mm), phalanx II-2 (122 mm), partial metatarsal III (~439 mm), phalanx III-1 (160 mm), phalanx III-2 (115 mm), partial metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1 (85 mm), phalanx IV-2 (70 mm), phalanx IV-3 (58 mm), phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (200 mm) (Currie and Carpenter, 2000)
?(OMNH 3031) four gastralia (paleofile.com)
(OMNH 51788) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
? teeth (Nydam et al., 1997)
Middle-Late Aptian
Arundel Formation, Maryland, US

(USNM 497718) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497722) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497723) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497724) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497725) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
(USNM 497726) tooth (Lipka, 1998)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Ruby Ranch Member of Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

(CEU 5107) tooth (Kirkland et al., 1997)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early-Late Cretaceous
Turney Ranch Formation, Arizona, US
(ASDM coll.) tooth (Ratkevich, 1997)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Paluxy Formation of the Trinity Group, Texas, US

(FMNH PR 965) tooth (72.8 mm) (Langston, 1974)
Aptian-Middle Albian, Early Cretaceous
Trinity Group, Texas

?(SMU 62271) teeth (Thurmond, 1974)
postorbital (Langston, 1974)
? femur (Langston, 1974)
(FMNH 2-51#1) juvenile premaxillary tooth fragment, seven lateral tooth fragments (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 3-51#1) seven tooth fragments (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 8-52#1) premaxillary tooth fragment ( mm) (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 9s-52#1) tooth fragment (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 47-50) tooth (15.9 mm), tooth fragment (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 123-50) (juvenile) tooth (11.7 mm) (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 124-50) tooth (19 mm) (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 202-50) premaxillary tooth fragment, two lateral tooth fragments (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 209-50) tooth (97 mm) (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 212-50) tooth (47 mm) (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH 239-50) two tooth fragments (Gallup, 1975)
(FMNH Turtle Gully) two tooth fragments (Gallup, 1975)
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Twin Mountains Formation, Texas, US
(SMU 74646) (1.87 tons) incomplete jugal, ectopterygoid, palatine, partial surangular, articular, partial prearticular, partial splenial, rostral tooth (84 mm tall, 31 by 19.5 mm wide), partial tooth, axis (101 mm), partial third cervical vertebra, partial fourth cervical vertebra, partial fifth cervical vertebra (158 mm), partial sixth cervical vertebra (180 mm), seventh cervical neural spine, eighth cervical neural spine, ninth cervical neural spine, tenth cervical centrum, two posterior cervical zygapophyseal assemblies, seven partial cervical ribs, first dorsal centrum (295 mm), partial second dorsal vertebra (268 mm),partial third dorsal vertebra, partial fourth dorsal vertebra, partial fifth dorsal centrum, partial sixth dorsal vertebra, partial seventh dorsal vertebra, partial eighth dorsal vertebra, incomplete ninth dorsal vertebra (135 mm), incomplete tenth dorsal vetrtebra (144 mm), partial eleventh dorsal vertebra, partial twelfth dorsal vertebra, partial thirteenth dorsal vertebra, ten dorsal neural spines, nineteen partial dorsal ribs, dorsal rib fragments, gasteralia, partial first sacral vertebra (170 mm), incomplete second sacral vertebra (160 mm), incomplete third sacral vertebra (160 mm), partial fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral fragment, two sacral neural spines, first caudal vertebra (117 mm), second caudal vertebra (124 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (139 mm), sixth caudal vertebra (135 mm), eighth caudal vertebra (135 mm), fifteenth caudal vertebra (140.5 mm), sixteenth caudal vertebra (150 mm), seventeenth caudal vertebra (142 mm), eighteenth caudal vertebra (141 mm), ninteenth caudal vertebra (141 mm), twenty-second caudal vertebra, twenty-eighth caudal vertebra (133 mm), twenty-ninth caudal vertebra (131 mm), thirtieth caudal vertebra, proximal scapula, distal scapula, incomplete pubes, ischia (844 mm), femora (1090 mm), distal metatarsal II (Harris, 1998)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Cloverly Formation, Wyoming, US

(juvenile) partial skeleton including vertebrae and femur (Melstrom and Demic, 2011)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Woodbine Formation, Texas, US
? teeth, limb fragments, manual ungual and/or pedal ungual (Main, Noto and Scotese, 2011)
? teeth (Bennett et al., 2012)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) absence of nasal extension of antorbital fossa and associated pneumatopores; supraoccipital expanded parasagittally into double boss posterior to nuchal crest; cervical vertebral neural spines with triangular anterior processes that insert into fossae ventral to overhanging processes on preceding neural spines; neural spines of presacral, sacral and anterior caudal vertebrae more than 2.5 times taller than respective centrum lengths; accessory process on lateral surface of caudal prezygapophysis
Comments- Langston (1947) originally called this taxon "Acrocanthus atokaensis" in his thesis before describing it as Acrocanthosaurus in 1950. The initial nomen nudum was published by Czaplewski et al. (1994).
Harris (1998) believes the tooth (UUVP 904) described by DeCourten (1991) does not belong to Acrocanthosaurus because the serrations are too coarse. However, Kirkland et al. (1997) mention cf. Acrocanthosaurus sp., which is a tooth (CEU 5107) with finer serrations (Harris, 1998).
SMU 62271 were said to be similar to Allosaurus, so are provisionally assigned to Acrocanthosaurus here based on provenance.
Senter and Robins (2005) note that NCSM 14345 does not include manual phalanges II-2 or III-3, manual ungual III, or the tips of manual unguals I and II. These were illustrated and described by Currie and Carpenter (2000) based on casts made by BHI personnel.
Currie and Carpenter (2000) found Acrocanthosaurus to be an allosaurid, but of their thirteen characters supporting this, at least four are primitive (promaxillary and maxillary fenestrae; axial intercentrum subparallel to axis ventral margin; paired anterior and posterior processes at base of chevrons; pubic foramen present in distal pubis), three are also found in Giganotosaurus (basioccipital participates in basal tubera; distal ends of paroccipital processes below foramen magnum; internal carotid opening pneumatized), one in Carcharodontosaurus (separation of trigeminal nerve branches complete), and five aren't known in Carcharodontosaurus or Giganotosaurus (long basipterygoid processes; reduced external mandibular fenestra; pronounced notch between acromion and coracoid; sigmoidal humerus; metacarpal IV absent). So there are actually no characters published by Currie and Carpenter that support placing Acrocanthosaurus in the Allosauridae. Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus are clearly more closely related to each other than Acrocanthosaurus is to either, but there's no reason to believe the latter is not carcharodontosaurid. When constrained as an allosaurid in Carrano et al.'s (2012) matrix, it takes 12 additional steps, showing this topology is indeed improbable.
References- Langston, 1947. A new genus and species of Cretaceous theropod dinosaur from the Trinity of Atoka County, Oklahoma. MS Thesis, The University of Oklahoma. 73 pp.
Stovall and Langston, 1950. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, a new genus and species of Lower Cretaceous Theropoda from Oklahoma. The American Midland Naturalist. 43(3), 696-728.
Langston, 1974. Nonmammalian Comanchean tetrapods. Geoscience and Man. 8, 77-102.
Thurmond, 1974. Lower vertebrate faunas of the Trinity division in North-Central Texas. Geoscience and Man. 8, 103-129.
Gallup, 1975. Lower Cretaceous dinosaurs and associated vertebrates from north-central Texas in the Field Museum of Natural History. MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin. 159 pp.
DeCourten, 1991. The Long Walk quarry and tracksite: Unveiling the mysterious Early Cretaceous of the Dinosaur Triangle region. In Averett (ed.). Guidebook for dinosaur quarries and tracksites tour, Western Colorado and Eastern Utah. Grand Junction: Grand Junction Geological Society. 19-25.
Czaplewski, Cifelli, and Langston, 1994. Catalog of type and figured fossil vertebrates, Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Oklahoma Geological Survey Special Publication. 94, 1-35.
Kirkland, Britt, Burge, Carpenter, Cifelli, DeCourten, Eaton, Hasiotis and Lawton, 1997. Lower to Middle Cretaceous dinosaur faunas of the Central Colorado Plateau: A key to understanding 35 million years of tectonics, sedimentology, evolution, and biogeography. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 42, 69-103.
Nydam, Cifelli, Brinkman and Gardner, 1997. Preliminary report on the vertebrate fauna of the Antlers Formation (Lower Cretaceous: Aptian-Albian) of Oklahoma. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 67A.
Ratkevich, 1997. Dinosaur remains of southern Arizona. In Wolberg, Stump and Rosenberg (eds.). Dinofest International. 213-221.
Harris, 1998. A reanalysis of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, its phylogenetic status, and paleobiogeographic implications, based on a new specimen from Texas. New Mexico Museum of Natural History Bulletin. 13, 1-75.
Harris, 1998. Large, Early Cretaceous theropods in North America. In Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 14, 225-228.
Lipka, 1998. The affinities of the enigmatic theropods of the Arundel Clay facies (Aptian), Potomac Formation, Atlantic coastal plain of Maryland. In Lucas, Kirkland and Estep (eds.). Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 14, 229-234.
Currie and Carpenter, 2000. A new specimen of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (Theropoda, Dinosauria) from the Lower Cretaceous Antlers Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Aptian) of Oklahoma, USA. Geodiversitas. 22(2), 207-246.
Franzosa and Rowe, 2005. Cranial endocast of the Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(4), 859-864.
Senter and Robins, 2005. Range of motion in the forelimb of the theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis, and implications for predatory behaviour. Zoological Journal. 266, 307-318.
Eddy, 2007. Results from a preliminary study of the bone histology of the Early Cretaceous allosaurid Acrocanthosaurus atokensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 70A.
Bates, 2008. Reconstructing the locomotor biology of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 48A.
Eddy, 2008. A re-analysis of the skull of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (NCSM 14345): Implications for allosauroid morphology, phylogeny, and biogeography. Masters Thesis. North Carolina State University. 180 pp.
Eddy and Clarke, 2008. A re-evaluation of a well-preserved skull of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis supports its carcharodontosaurid affinities. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 73A-74A.
Bates, 2009. Predicting speed, gait and metabolic cost of locomotion in the large predatory dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus using evolutionary robotics. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 59A.
Eddy and Clarke, 2011. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). PLoS ONE. 6(3), e17932.
Main, Noto and Scotese, 2011. New theropod material from the Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation of North Central Texas: Paleobiogeographic and paleoecological implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 150.
Melstrom and Demic, 2011. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cloverly Formation of Wyoming: Implications for Early Cretaceous North American ecosystems. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 157.
Bennett, Main, Noto, Anderson and Vranken, 2012. Microvertebrate paleoecology, wildfires and biodiversity of coastal Appalachia in the Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Woodbine Formation at the Arlington archosaur site, North Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 63.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
A? sp. indet. (Burge, 1996)
Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, US

Material- teeth, bone fragments
Reference- Burge, 1996. New dinosaur discoveries in the Lower Cretaceous of Southeastern Utah. Proceedings of Southwest Paleontological Society and Mesa Southwest Museum, Mesa, Arizona. 4, 85-105.
A? sp. indet. (Cranwell, 2003)
Late Early Cretaceous
Shellenberger Canyon Formation, Arizona, US

Material- caudal centra
Reference- Cranwell, 2003. New evidence of dinosaurs from the Shellenberger Canyon Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Southeastern Arizona, USA. Southwest Paleontological Symposium 2002, Guide to Presentations, Mesa Southwest Museum, unnumbered.

Veterupristisaurus Rauhut, 2011
V. milneri
Rauhut, 2011
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Holotype- (MB R 1938; = ST 270) (~10 m) mid caudal vertebra (123 mm)
Paratype-....(MB R 2166; = ST 757) two fused mid caudal vertebrae (91, ~90 mm) fused with chevron fragment
Diagnosis- (after Rauhut, 2011) mid caudal spinoprezygapophyseal lamina extends anteriorly to midwidth of the base of the prezygapophysis (rather than its lateral margin); mid caudal spinoprezygapophyseal lamina flanked laterally by short, parallel lamina extending from lateral margin of prezygapophysis posteriorly.
Comments- These vertebrae were originally referred to Ceratosaurus roechlingi by Janensch (1925), though Rauhut (2011) described them as a new taxon of carcharodontosaurid most closely related to Acrocanthosaurus based on the shared strong anterolateral ridge on the mid caudal transverse processes.
References- Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

unnamed clade (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus <- Acrocanthosaurus atokensis)
Comments- This subset of carcharodontosaurids is characterized by wrinkled tooth enamel, among other characters.

unnamed Carcharodontosauridae (Vickers-Rich, Rich, Lanus, Rich and Vacca, 1999)
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Cerro Castano Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material- (MPEF-PV 1160-1167, 1169) nine tooth fragments
(MPEF-PV 1168) dentary tooth (69.6 mm)
Comments- May be referrable to Tyrannotitan, based on provenance.
References- Vickers-Rich, Rich, Lanus, Rich and Vacca, 1999. 'Big Tooth' from the Early Cretaceous of Chubut Province, Patagonia: A possible carcharodontosaurid. In Tomida, Rich, and Vickers-Rich (eds.). Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium. National Science Museum Monographs. 15, 85-88.
Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cuneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000. Theropods from the "Middle" Cretaceous Chubut Group of the San Jorge sedimentary basin, Central Patagonia: A preliminary note. GAIA. 15, 111-115.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cuneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000)
Albian-Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous
Bayo Overo Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Material- (MPEF-PV 1171-1174) tooth, three tooth fragments (Rich et al., 2000)
(probably at least six individuals) fifty-five teeth (Canale et al., 2014)
Comments- From the same locality as "Megalosaurus" inexpectatus, so may be referrable to that taxon.
References- Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cuneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000. Theropods from the "Middle" Cretaceous Chubut Group of the San Jorge sedimentary basin, Central Patagonia: A preliminary note. GAIA. 15, 111-115.
Canale, Carballido, Otero, Canudo and Garrido, 2014. Carcharodontosaurid teeth associated with titanosaur carcasses from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of the Chubut Group, Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina. Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontologia de Vertebrados. Ameghiniana. 51(6) suplemento, 6.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Calvo, Rubila and Moreno, 1999)
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Candeleros Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Material- maxilla, dentary, cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, ilia, pubis, femur, tibia, pedal elements
Reference- Calvo, Rubila and Moreno, 1999. Report of a new theropod dinosaur from Northwestern Patagonia. XV Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontología de Vertebrados. Ameghiniana. 36(4), 7R.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Martinelli and Forasiepi, 2004)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Allen Formation, Rio Negro, Argentina

Material- (MACN-PV RN 1086) tooth
Reference- Martinelli and Forasiepi, 2004. Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Bajo de Santa Rosa (Allen Formation), Río Negro province, Argentina, with the description of a new sauropod dinosaur (Titanosauridae). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 6(2), 257-305.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Medeiros and Schultz, 2002)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Alcantara Formation of the Itapecuru Group, Brazil

Material- teeth
Comments- Referred to Carcharodontosaurus sp. by Medeiros and Schultz (2002), but this is unlikely given the location.
References- Medeiros and Schultz, 2002. The dinosaurian fauna of "Laje do Coringa", Middle Cretaceous of northeastern Brazil. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. 60(3), 155-162.
Castro, Bertini, Santucci and Medeiros, 2005. Fossils from the Coroata Locality, undifferentiated geological unity, Itapecuru Group, Lower/Middle Albian from the Sao Luis-Grajau Basin, Maranhao State, North/Northeastern Brazil. In Kellner, Henriques and Rodriguesn (eds.). II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro Museu Nacional. Boletim de Resumos. 75-76.
Elais, Bertini and Medeiros, 2005. Review of the occurrences concerning isolated amniotes teeth, in the Cretaceous deposits from the Maranhao State. In Kellner, Henriques and Rodriguesn (eds.). II Congresso Latino-Americano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Rio De Janeiro Museu Nacional. Boletim de Resumos. 99-100.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Canudo, Salgado, Barco, Bolatti and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2004)
Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Cerro Lisandro Formation, Rio Negro, Argentina

Material- (Endemas PV-2) tooth
teeth
Reference- Canudo, Salgado, Barco, Bolatti and Ruiz-Omenaca, 2004. Dientes de dinosaurios teropodos y sauropodos de la Formacion Cerro Lisandro (Cenomaniense superior-Turoniense inferior, Cretacico superior) en Rio Negro (Argentina). Geo-Temas. 6(5), 31-34.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Novas, Martinez, de Valais and Ambrosio, 1999)
Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Mata Amarilla Formation, Santa Cruz, Argentina

Material- teeth
Reference- Novas, Martinez, de Valais and Ambrosio, 1999. Nuevos registros de Carcharodontosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda) en el Cretácico de Patagonia. Ameghiniana. 36, 17R.

unnamed carcharodontosaurid (Veralli and Calvo, 2003)
Late Turonian-Early Coniacian, Late Cretaceous
Portezuelo Formation of Rio Neuquen Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Material- (MUCPv 381, 384, 386, 387, 391) ten teeth
References- Veralli and Calvo, 2003. New findings of carcharodontosauid teeth on Futalognko quarry (Upper Turonian), north Barreales Lake, Neuquén, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 40(4), 74R.
Veralli and Calvo, 2004. Dientes de terópodos carcharodontosáuridos del Turoniano superior-Coniaciano inferior del Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 587-590.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Kellner and Campos, 1998)
Turonian-Santonian, Late Cretaceous
Adamantina Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Material- (MMR/UFU-PV 005) tooth (Candeiro et al., 2006)
(UFRJ-DG 379-Rd) tooth (Candeiro et al., 2004)
Description- strong enamel ridges on teeth similar to carcharodontosaurids.
References- Kellner and Campos, 1998. Review of Cretaceous theropods and sauropods from Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 55A.
Silva and Kellner, 1999. Novos dentes de Theropoda do Cretaceo continental do Brasil. Paleontologia em Destaque, Boletim Informativo da Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia. 14(26).
Candeiro, Abranches, Abrantes, Avilla, Martins, Moreira, Torres and Bergqvist, 2004. Dinosaurs remains from western São Paulo state, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Upper Cretaceous). Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 18, 1-10.
Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: A reappraisal. Cretaceous Research. 27, 923-946.
Candeiro, Santos, Rich, Marinho and Oliveira, 2006. Vertebrate fossils from the Adamantina Formation (Late Cretaceous), Prata paleontological district, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Geobios. 39, 319-327.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Candeiro, Bergqvist, Novas and Currie, 2004)
Late Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Marilia Formation of the Bauru Group, Brazil

Material- (CPP 124, 127, 129a, 152, 156, 197, 199, 200, 208, 216, 241, 375/1, 376, 447-449, 474, 475) eighteen teeth
References- Candeiro, Bergqvist, Novas and Currie, 2004. Theropod teeth from the Marilia Formation (Upper Maastrichtian), Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(3), 204A.
Candeiro, Martinelli, Avilla and Rich, 2006. Tetrapods from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) Bauru Group of Brazil: A reappraisal. Cretaceous Research. 27, 923-946.
Candeiro, Currie and Bergqvist, 2012. Theropod teeth from the Marília Formation (Late Maastrichtian) at the paleontological site of Peirópolis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Geociências. 42(2), 323-330.

undescribed Carcharodontosauridae (Torices, Barroso-Barcenilla, Cambra-Moo, Perez-Garcia and Segura, 2010)
Mid-Late Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Upper Arenas de Utrillas Formation, Spain
Material
- teeth
Comments- These are reported to "have rough enamel and arcuate wrinkles."
Reference- Torices, Barroso-Barcenilla, Cambra-Moo, Perez-Garcia and Segura, 2010. The new Cenomanian vertebrate site Algora; (Guadalajara, Spain). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2010, 176A.

unnamed Carcharodontosauridae (Rauhut, 1999)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Wadi Milk Formation, Sudan

Material- (Vb-607) proximal caudal centrum (137 mm)
(Vb-717) proximal caudal centrum (136 mm)
?(Vb-718) pedal phalanx III-2 (105 mm)
?(Vb-849) distal tarsal III, proximal metatarsal III
(Vb-870) mid caudal centrum (130 mm)
(Vb-871) mid caudal vertebra (136 mm)
Comments- Pleurocoels in Vb-607 and Vb-871 may indicate referral to Carcharodontosaurus. Vb-871 is from a different taxon than Vb-607, Vb-717 and Vb-870, based on the deeper ventral groove, less prominent ventral keel, and more distally developed pleurocoels. The limb elements are only tentatively referred to Carcharodontosauridae, based on similarity to allosauroids.
References- Werner, 1991. Aspects on terrestrial Upper Cretaceous ecosystems of Egypt and Northern Sudan. Fifth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota, extended abstracts. Contributions from the Paleontological Museum, University of Oslo. 364, 71-72.
Werner, 1993. Late Cretaceous continental vertebrate fauns of Niger and Northern Sudan. In Thorweihe and Schandelmier (eds.). Geosicentific Research in Northeast Africa. Proceedings of the International Conference on Geoscientific Research in Northeast Africa. 401-405.
Werner, 1994. Die kontinentale Wirbeltierfauna aus der unteren Oberkreide des Sudan (Wadi Milk Formation) [The continental vertebrate fauna of the lower Upper Cretaceous of Sudan (Wadi Milk Formation)]. In Kohring and Martin (eds.). Miscellanea Palaeontologica 3: Festschrift Bernard Krebs. Berliner Geowissenschaften Abhandlungen, Reihe E. 13, 221-249.
Rauhut, 1999. A dinosaur fauna from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Northern Sudan. Palaeontologia Africana. 35, 61-84.

unnamed possible carcharodontosaurid (Young and Sun, 1957)
Late Jurassic
Kelaza Formation, Xinjiang, China

Material- (IVPP V903) (~6 m; ~600 kg) anterior dentary, three teeth
Comments- Originally referred to cf. Szechuanosaurus, that genus is an indeterminate neotheropod. Molnar (1974) noted the lateral dentary shelf was similar to Labocania, and Mapusaurus has one too (Coria and Currie, 2006). Chure (2000) noted the typically theropod teeth (recurved with small serrations) distinguish the taxon from segnosaurs, which also have a lateral dentary shelf. He referred it to Theropoda indet..
References- Young and Sun, 1957. Note on a fragmentary carnosaurian mandible from Turfan, Sinkiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 1(2), 2027-2036.
Molnar, 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology. 48(5), 1009-1017.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.

undescribed carcharodontosaurid (Lu, Xu, Jiang, Jia, Li, Yuan, Zhang and Ji, 2009)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Haoling Formation, Henan, China
Material
- (41HIII-0093) incomplete lateral tooth
(41HIII-0094) incomplete lateral tooth
(41HIII-0095) anterior tooth (65 mm)
(41HIII-0096) incomplete lateral tooth
Comments- While originally assigned to the Mangchuan Formation, Xu et al. 2012 split this into three new formations and revised their ages.
Reference- Lu, Xu, Jiang, Jia, Li, Yuan, Zhang and Ji, 2009. A preliminary report on the new dinosaurian fauna from the Cretaceous of the Ruyang Basin, Henan province of Central China. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea. 25(1), 43-56.

unnamed clade (Labocania anomala + Shaochilong maortuensis)
Diagnosis- very thick frontal; supratemporal fossa restricted from frontal; sagittal crest on frontal; lack of helical groove on quadrate condyle.
Comments- Labocania and Shaochilong appear to be each others closest relatives, a possibility originally noted by Molnar (1974), and later elaborated by Chure (2000). The clade remains unnamed however. The taxa fall outside Tyrannoraptora in a modified version of Senter's (2007) matrix, as Shaochilong lacks a palatal shelf, nasal fusion or transversely convex nasals, and has fused interdental plates. While the triangular obturator process of Labocania and the subcondylar recesses of Shaochilong are similar to coelurosaurs, these are also present in some carcharodontosaurids.

Labocania Molnar, 1974
L. anomala Molnar, 1974
Late Campanian, Late Cretaceous
El Gallo Formation, Mexico

Diagnosis- pneumatic quadrate; oblique ridge on posterior face of quadrate; lateral dentary shelf.
Holotype- (LACM 20877) (~7.5 m; ~1.2 tons) (skull ~660 mm) partial maxilla, distal quadrate, frontal, dentary fragment, premaxillary teeth, maxillary teeth, chevron, proximal ischium (~750 mm), shaft of pubis, nearly complete metatarsal II (<507 mm), phalanx III-2 (~115 mm)
Comments- Discovered in 1970, this taxon was originally compared to Indosaurus, Shaochilong and an unnamed partial dentary from the Kelaza Formation described by Young and Sun (1957) (IVPP V903). Similarities to tyrannosaurids were also noted. Paul (1988) referred it to his Allosauridae, which was paraphyletic to tyrannosaurids. Lamanna and Smith reexamined this species in 1998 and found the specimen to be more fragmentary than expected. A paper may be published soon. They conclude it is a tyrannosaurid, although it may not be valid. Chure (2000) referred it to Holtz's tyrannosaur + ornithomimosaur + troodontid clade, and thought it was most closely related to Shaochilong. Another so far unpublished possibility is a relationship to carcharodontosaurids, as Mapusaurus and Giganotosaurus have a pneumatic quadrate, lateral dentary shelf, proximolateral ischial fossa and triangular obturator process. This would coincide with Brusatte et al.'s (2009) recent assignment of Shaochilong to that clade.
References- Young and Sun, 1957. Note on a fragmentary carnosaurian mandible from Turfan, Sinkiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 1(2), 2027-2036.
Molnar, 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology. 48(5), 1009-1017.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009. The first definitive carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Asia and the delayed ascent of tyrannosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 96(9), 1051-1058.

Shaochilong Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009
= “Alashansaurus" Chure, 2000
S. maortuensis (Hu, 1964) Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009
= Chilantaisaurus maortuensis Hu, 1964
= "Alashansaurus" maortuensis (Hu, 1964) Chure, 2000
Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Lower Ulanhushi Formation of Dashigou Group, Inner Mongolia, China

Lectotype- (IVPP V2885.1) (~5-6 m; ~500 kg; adult) (skull ~580 mm) incomplete braincase
....(IVPP V2885.2) partial nasal, frontals (93.3 mm), parietals (22 mm)
Paralectotypes- ....(IVPP V2885.3) quadrates (143 mm)
....(IVPP V2885.4) maxillae (one incomplete, one fragmentary and lost; ~350 mm)
....(IVPP V2885.5) incomplete axis (~70 mm)
?...(IVPP V2885.6) incomplete proximal caudal vertebra (72 mm), two proximal caudal vertebrae (lost)
?...(IVPP V2885.7) mid caudal vertebra (85 mm), distal caudal centrum (85 mm), distal caudal centrum (90 mm)
Diagnosis- (after Hu, 1964) twelve maxillary teeth.
(after Chure, 1998) paradental groove on medial surface of maxilla absent; large cylindrical pneumatic cavity in posterior nasals; deep sagittal crest on frontals and parietals.
(after Chure, 2000) no maxillary palatal shelf.
(after Brusatte et al., 2009) maxillary antorbital fossa reduced in extent and nearly absent; deep, dorsoventrally oriented grooves located dorsally on maxillary interdental plates; large pneumatic foramen at anterodorsal corner of dorsal tympanic recess of prootic.
Other diagnoses- Hu (1964) also diagnosed maortuensis by its large occipital condyle (compared to the foramen magnum), which is similar to other carcharodontosaurids. His last two characters- small skull and small quadrate, are too vague to evaluate.
Of the supposedly diagnostic characters listed by Chure (1998), the fused maxillary interdental plates, anteriorly limited supratemporal fossae, declined paroccipital processes and highly pneumatized and shortened basicranium are typical of carcharodontosaurids. Contra Chure, a paraquadrate foramen was present, and the maxillary interdental plates are not small. The frontal sagittal crest is shared with Labocania.
Chure (2000) listed additional diagnostic characters, including ones that are typical of carcharodontosaurids- thick, flat frontals; subnarial process of frontals forms a deep trough; short axis. The absent distal quadrate groove is shared with Labocania, while the frontals aren't unfused and the axial neural spine is posterodorsally inclined.
Comments- Hu (1964) placed this and Chilantaisaurus tashuikensis in the same genus based on dental and caudal similarities. The caudals of Chilantaisaurus are only doubtfully referred and belong to the proximal part of the series, while those of Shaochilong are more distal. Also, the tooth of Chilantaisaurus is similarly doubtfully referred and comparison with the exposed tooth of Shaochilong is not useful. Because of this, Chure (1998) separated the two species, and later (2000) created a new genus for maortuensis in his unpublished thesis- "Alashansaurus" (incorrectly spelled "Alshansaurus" by Brusatte et al., 2010). The name was published by Glut (2003), but the latter reference includes a caveat to prevent it from being an official taxonomic source, leaving the possibility of Chure being its official describer once his thesis' contents are published. This happened in 2009, when Chure coauthored Brusatte et al. (2009), naming the genus Shaochilong instead.
After Hu's assignment to the Megalosauridae, Molnar (1974) noted frontal and quadrate similarities to Labocania. Both Paul (1988) and Molnar et al. (1990) assigned it to a paraphyletic Allosauridae, closer to tyrannosaurids than Allosaurus. Chure (1998) noted it shared characters with Labocania, tyrannosaurs, troodontids and dromaeosaurids. He later (2000) assigned it to Holtz's tyrannosaur + ornithomimosaur + troodontid clade based on the proximolateral ischial scar in the related Labocania, and to the Tyrannosauroidea based on the highly pneumatized basicranium and short and deep braincase. He finds it is most closely related to Labocania, which I concur with based on characters described above. Brusatte et al. (2009) entered it into Smith et al.'s (2007) matrix, finding it to be a carcharodontosaurid outside of Carcharodontosaurinae and related to Tyrannotitan.
References- Hu, 1964. Carnosaurian remains from Alashan, Inner Mongolia. Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 8, 42-63.
Molnar, 1974. A distinctive theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Baja California (Mexico). Journal of Paleontology. 48(5), 1009-1017.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Molnar, Kurzanov and Dong, 1990. Carnosauria. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria. Berkeley: University of California Press. 169-209.
Chure, 1998. "Chilantaisaurus" maortuensis, a large maniraptoran theropod from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) of Nei Mongol, PRC. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 33A-34A.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Glut, 2003. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia - Supplement 3. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 726 pp.
Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan and Hone, 2009. The first definitive carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Asia and the delayed ascent of tyrannosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 96(9), 1051-1058.
Brusatte, Chure, Benson and Xu, 2010. The osteology of Shaochilong maortuensis, a carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Asia. Zootaxa. 2334, 1-46.

Carcharodontosaurinae Stromer, 1931 vide Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Carcharodontosaurus saharicus + Giganotosaurus carolinii) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)

"Megalosaurus" chubutensis Corro, 1974
Cenomanian-Turonian, Late Cretaceous
Cerro Castillo Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (MACN 18.189) tooth (~85 mm)
Comments- Poblete and Calvo (2004) assign chubutensis to Carcharodontosauridae, based on marginal wrinkles, serration density and a distal carina which descends in a zigzag pattern in lingual view. They consider it indeterminate. Carrano et al. (2012) stated it resembled abelisaurids, but did not list shared characters.
Reference- Corro, 1974. Un nuevo megalosaurio (Carnosaurio) del Cretacico de Chubut (Argentina). Comunicación del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia. 1, 37-44.
Poblete and Calvo, 2004. "Megalosaurus chubutensis" del Corro: un posible Carcharodontosauridae del Chubut. Ameghiniana. 41(4), 59R-60R.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.

"Megalosaurus" ingens Janensch, 1920
= Ceratosaurus ingens (Janensch, 1920) Paul, 1988
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Upper Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Lectotype- (MB R 1050) tooth (120 mm)
Paralectotypes- (MB R 1060) tooth
(MB R 1069) tooth
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Middle Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Paralectotypes- (MB R 1054) tooth
(MB R 1057) tooth
(MB R 1058) tooth
(MB R 1061) tooth
(MB R 1067) tooth
Callovian-Oxfordian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Lower Dinosaur Member of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Paralectotypes- (MB R 1053) tooth
(MB R 1064) tooth
Callovian-Tithonian, Middle Jurassic-Late Jurassic
Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania

Paralectotypes- (MB R 1082) tooth
?(MB R coll.) thirteen teeth, tooth fragments
Comments- Though Janensch (1925) referred 13 more teeth and tooth fragments to the taxon, these are excluded by Rauhut (2011) as not sharing the exact same combination of characters. Rauhut did note there are Tendaguru teeth that are similar except for the absence of enamel wrinkles, which are individually variable in many other taxa. While this species has been referred to both Megalosaurus (Janensch, 1920) and Ceratosaurus (Paul, 1988), Rauhut (2011) noted it differs from these taxa. Specifically, Megalosaurus differs in having a more strongly recurved crown tip, finer serrations, mesial serrations that ends well above the crown-root junction, and lacks down-pointing grooves at the bases of the serrations. Ceratosaurus also lacks the latter grooves, has strongly transversely flattened crowns, pronounced flat or even slightly concave areas adjacent to the carinae, and never shows enamel wrinkles. Rauhut (1995) noted similarity with Carcharodontosaurus in the interdenticle grooves, and suggested it may be a carcharodontosaurid. He later (2011) made the same suggestion, this time based on the combination of only slightly recurved crowns, basally directed grooves at the base of the serrations, mesial carina extends to the base of the crown, and marginal, apically curved enamel wrinkles along the carinae. If so, these characters are only shared with carcharodontosaurines within that family. Note Madsen and Welles (2000) incorrectly attributed the combination Ceratosaurus ingens to Rowe and Gauthier (1990) and wrongly considered it a lapsus calumni, apparently unaware of Paul's book.
References- Janensch, 1920. Ueber Elaphrosaurus bambergi und die Megalosaurier aus den Tendaguru Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. 1920, 225-235.
Janensch, 1925. Die Coelurosaurier und Theropoden der Tendaguru-Schichten Deutsch-Ostafrikas. Palaeontographica. 1(supp. 7), 1-99.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Rowe and Gauthier, 1990. Ceratosauria. In Weishampel, Osmólska and Dodson (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press. 151-168.
Rauhut, 1995. Zur systematischen Stellung der afrikanischen Theropoden Carcharodontosaurus Stromer, 1931, und Bahariasaurus Stromer, 1934. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. 16(1), 357-375.
Madsen and Welles, 2000. Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. Miscellaneous Publication 00-2 Utah Geological Survey. 80 pp.
Rauhut, 2006. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tanzania and the origin of Cretaceous Gondwanan theropod faunas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 113A.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.

Taurovenator Motta, Aranciaga Rolando, Rozadilla, Agnolin, Chimento, Brisson Egli and Novas, 2016
T. violantei Motta, Aranciaga Rolando, Rozadilla, Agnolin, Chimento, Brisson Egli and Novas, 2016
Late Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Huincul Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MPCA PV 802) postorbital
Diagnosis- (after Motta et al., 2016) horn-like prominence on orbital brow of postorbital; deep excavation in ventral surface of postorbital (unknown in Mapusaurus).
Comments- It seems plausible this is referrable to the contemporaneus Mapusaurus, though it is said to be more robust, smaller and has the autapomorphic horn.
Reference- Motta, Aranciaga Rolando, Rozadilla, Agnolin, Chimento, Brisson Egli and Novas, 2016. New theropod fauna from the Upper Cretaceous (Huincul Formtation) of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. In Khosla and Lucas (eds.). Cretaceous period: Biotic diversity and biogeography. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 71, 231-253.

unnamed carcharodontosaurine (Azevedo, Simbras, Furtado, Candeiro and Bergqvist, 2012)
Campanian-Maastrichtian, Late Cretaceous
Presidente Prudente Formation, Brazil
Material
- (UFRJ-DG409-R) maxillary fragment
Reference- Azevedo, Simbras, Furtado, Candeiro and Bergqvist, 2012. First Brazilian carcharodontosaurid and other new theropod dinosaur fossils from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Presidente Prudente Formation, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Cretaceous Research. 40, 131-142.

unnamed carcharodontosaurine (Simionescu, 1913)
Late Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
Alimanu Member of the Cernavoda Formation, Romania
Material
- (UAIC (SCM1) 615; = Harsova Museum 200) lateral tooth (85.5x29x16.3 mm)
Comments- This tooth was described by Simionescu (1913) and compared to Erectopus (then Megalosaurus superbus). Huene (1926) doubted it was the same species due to age differences, but did continue to call it Erectopus aff. superbus. Csiki-Sava et al. (2016) redescribed the specimen in detail and determined it is strongly supported as a carcharodontosaurine and resembles Carcharodontosaurus more than giganotosaurines in two characters- roughly straight distal margin of crown; pronounced marginal undulations in enamel that are easily visible in normal light.
References- Simionescu, 1913. Megalosaurus aus der Unterkreide der Dobrogea. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie, und Palaeontologie. 1913, 686-687.
Huene, 1926. The carnivorous Saurischia in the Jura and Cretaceous formations, principally in Europe. Revista Museo de La Plata. 29, 35-167.
Csiki-Sava, Brusatte and Vasile, 2016. "Megalosaurus cf. superbus" from southeastern Romania: The oldest known Cretaceous carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and its implications for earliest Cretaceous Europe-Gondwana connections. Cretaceous Research. 60, 221-238.

Carcharodontosaurus Stromer, 1931
Diagnosis- (modified after Brusatte and Sereno, 2007) pronounced grooved sculpturing of nearly the entire lateral surface of the maxilla.
Other diagnoses- Chiarenza and Cau (2016) noted two characters proposed by Brusatte and Sereno (2007) (large internal carotid and paracondylar pneumatocoels (pneumatic recesses); deep funnel-shaped basisphenoid fossa) are also present in Giganotosaurus.
References- Stromer, 1931. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-Reste der Baharîjestufe (unterstes Cenoman). 10. Ein Skelett-Rest von Carcharodontosaurus nov. gen. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 9, 1-23.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
Chiarenza and Cau, 2016. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa. PeerJ. 4:e1754.
C. saharicus (Deperet and Savornin, 1925) Stromer, 1931
= Megalosaurus saharicus Deperet and Savornin, 1925
= Megalosaurus (Dryptosaurus) saharicus (Deperet and Savornin, 1925) Deperet and Savornin, 1927
= Megalosaurus africanus Deperet and Savornin, 1925 vide Huene, 1956
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Kem Kem beds, Morocco

Neotype- (SGM-Din 1) (12.79 m) incomplete skull (missing premaxillae, squamosals, quadratojugals) (~1.42 m) (Sereno et al., 1996)
Referred- ?(CMN 41817) tooth (54x27x12 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41818) tooth (67x36x22 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41819) tooth (69x34x16 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41859) maxillary fragment (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41908) tooth (30x24x11 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 41910) tooth (23x19x6 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(CMN 50792) cervical vertebra (148 mm) (Russell, 1996)
?(M-CH-003) tooth (Amiot, Buffetaut, Tong, Boudad and Kabiri, 2004)
?(M-TA-032) tooth (Amiot, Buffetaut, Tong, Boudad and Kabiri, 2004)
?(NMB-1673-R) tooth (72.6x36x17.5 mm) (Richter, Mudroch and Buckley, 2013)
?(NMB-1674-R) tooth (67.2x29.3x8.9 mm) (Richter, Mudroch and Buckley, 2013)
? teeth, ilium (Lavocat, 1954)
? teeth (Sadleir, 1998)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Algeria

Holotype- ?(lost; syntypes of Megalosaurus saharicus) two maxillary or dentary teeth
Referred- ?(MNNHN coll.) twelve teeth (to FABL of 42 mm), few mid caudal vertebrae (~70-100 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Baharija Formation, Egypt

?(IPHG 1912 VIII 68) ilium (Stromer, 1934)
(IPHG 1922 X46; holotype of Carcharodontosaurus) partial maxilla, maxillary teeth, nasals, frontals, parietals, supraoccipital, partial exoccipital-opisthotics, axis, anterior cervical vertebra (100 mm), cervical vertebra, proximal dorsal rib, proximal caudal vertebra (145 mm), proximal chevron (150 mm), partial chevron, manual ungual, incomplete pubes (>1 m), partial ischium, femora (1.26 m), fibula (880 mm) (Stromer, 1931)
?material (Smith et al., 2001)
Cretaceous
Africa

?(FPDM-V6211) fragmentary skull (Azuma, 2005)
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte and Sereno, 2007) laterally protruding ventral margin of the maxillary external antorbital fossa; deep and ventrally-facing fossa between
the inner wall of the maxilla and the anteromedial process; deep and dorsoventrally protruding lacrimal-frontal suture; invaginated anteromedial corner of the supratemporal fossa; distinct enamel wrinkles on both mesial and distal margins of mesial (anterior) and mid maxillary crowns.
Comments- Megalosaurus saharicus is based on two teeth from the Albian Continental Intercalaire of Algeria (Deperet and Sevornin, 1925). Huene (1956) listed Megalosaurus africanus, incorrectly attributed to Deperet and Savornin (1925), but this is probably a mistake. Later, Stromer (1931) described a partial skeleton from the Early Cenomanian Baharija Formation of Egypt and referred it to this species, creating the genus Carcharodontosaurus for it. An incomplete skull from the Cenomanian Kem Kem beds of Morocco closely resembling Stromer's specimen was reported by Sereno et al. (1996). Brusatte and Sereno (2007) noted Giganotosaurus has identical teeth to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, thus the original Megalosaurus saharicus specimens are indeterminate. In order to save Carcharodontosaurus saharicus from being a nomen dubium, they made the incomplete Kem Kem skull the neotype of the species (Stromer's material is destroyed). Since no diagnostic differences have been noted between the teeth of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus and Giganotosaurus, the referral of isolated teeth to any particular derived carcharodontosaurid taxon is based solely on locality. Chiarenza and Cau (2016) proposed the neotype differs from the holotype in having ventrally flattened maxillary interdental plates, but this seems to be due to damage in the neotype, whose complete third interdental plate is ventrally pointed.
The ilium (IPHG 1912 VIII 68) referred to Carcharodontosaurus by Stromer (1934) does not necessarily belong to this taxon, and may be ceratosaurian (?= Deltadromeus or Bahariasaurus). Twelve teeth and a few mid caudal vertebrae from the holotype locality were described by Lapparent (1960). The teeth are described as having enamel wrinkles as in derived carcharodontosaurids and being very similar to the holotype, though the caudals' referral is uncertain. They are referred here to C. saharicus based on provenance. Russell (1996) described a maxillary fragment, cervical vertebra and teeth from the Kem Kem beds of Morocco, which though closely resembling those in Stromer's specimen, are only referred to the species saharicus based on provenance. The same can be said for teeth from that locality mentioned by Lavocat (1954) and Sadlier (1998), though Lavocat's teeth were not only compared to Carcharodontosaurus, but also Tendaguru taxa and Tyrannosaurus, so may not be referrable to carcharodontosaurids at all. Smith et al. (2001) reported new remains of cf. Carcharodontosaurus from the Baharija Formation of Egypt. Sereno et al. (1996) referred the specimen of Spinosaurus B and the material of Sigilmassasaurus to Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, but Ibrahim et al. (2014) have since demonstrated they belong to Spinosaurus.
References- Deperet and Savornin, 1925. Sur la decouverte d'une faune de vertebres albiens a Timintoun (Sahara occidental). Comptes Rendus de l’Academic de Sciences. 181, 1108-1111.
Depéret and Savornin, 1927. La faune de reptiles et de poisons albiens de Timimoun (Sahara algérien). Bulletin de la société géologique de France. 27, 257-265.
Stromer, 1931. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-Reste der Baharîjestufe (unterstes Cenoman). 10. Ein Skelett-Rest von Carcharodontosaurus nov. gen. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 9, 1-23
Stromer, 1934. Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltierreste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 13. Dinosauria. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Abteilung, Neue Folge. 22, 1-79.
Lavocat, 1954. Sur les dinosauriens du Continental Intercalaire des Kem-Kem de la Daoura [On the dinosaurs from the Continental Intercalaire of the Kem Kem of the Doura]. Comptes Rendus 19th Intenational Geological Congress, 1952. 1, 65-68.
Huene, 1956. Palaeontologie und Phylogenie der Niederen Tetrapoden. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlang, Jena. 716 pp.
Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Rauhut, 1995. Zur systematischen Stellung der afrikanischen Theropoden Carcharodontosaurus Stromer 1931 und Bahariasaurus Stromer 1934 [The systematic position of the African theropods Carcharodontosaurus Stromer 1931 and Bahariasaurus Stromer 1934]. Berliner Geowissenschaften Abhandlungen. 16, 357-375.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.) 18, 349-402.
Sereno, Dutheil, Iarochene, Larsson, Lyon, Magwene, Sidor, Varricchio and Wilson, 1996. Predatory dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous faunal differentiation. Science. 272(5264), 986-991.
Sadleir, 1998. Theropod teeth from the Cretaceous of Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 74A.
Larsson, 2001. Endocranial anatomy of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) and its implications for theropod brain evolution. in Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, Indiana. 19-33.
Smith, Lamanna, Lacovara, Dodson, Smith, Poole, Giegengack and Attia, 2001. A giant sauropod dinosaur from an Upper Cretaceous mangrove deposit in Egypt. Science. 292, 1704-1706.
Amiot, Buffetaut, Tong, Boudad and Kabiri, 2004. Isolated theropod teeth from the Cenomanian of Morocco and their palaeobiogeographical significance. Revue de Paleobiologie, Geneve. 9, 143-149.
Azuma, 2005. The Flying Dinosaurs. Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. 118 pp.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
Richter, Mudroch and Buckley, 2013. Isolated theropod teeth from the Kem Kem Beds (Early Cenomanian) near Taouz, Morocco. Palaontologische Zeitschrift. 87, 291-309.
Ibrahim, Sereno, Dal Sasso, Maganuco, Fabbri, Martill, Zouhri, Myhrvold and Iurino, 2014. Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur. Science. 345(6204), 1613-1616.
Chiarenza and Cau, 2016. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa. PeerJ. 4:e1754.
C? iguidensis Brusatte and Sereno, 2007
Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Echkar Formation of the Tegama Group, Niger

Holotype- (MNN IGU2) partial maxilla
Paratypes- ?(MNN IGU3) (adult) braincase
?(MNN IGU4) partial lacrimal
?(MNN IGU5) anterior dentary
?(MNN IGU6) tooth
?(MNN IGU7) tooth
?(MNN IGU8) tooth
?(MNN IGU9) tooth
?(MNN IGU10) tooth
? teeth, vertebral fragments
Diagnosis- (after Brusatte and Sereno, 2007) very reduced antorbital fossa limited to the proximity of the maxillary fenestra; anteromedial maxillary process that is broadly arched toward the midline; prominent horizontal crest on the medial aspect of the main maxillary body; braincase excavated by a deep invaginated fossa on the anterior aspect of the laterosphenoid ala.
Comments- Sereno et al. (2004) noted carcharodontosaurids were associated with Rugops in the Echkar Formation, and Brusatte and Sereno (2005) briefly described the new species in an abstract. It was named and described in detail by Brusatte and Sereno (2007). They also referred a cervical centrum (MNN IG11) to the species, but it was found loose from the ground and was too immature to belong to the same individual as MNN IGU3. It is here referred to Spinosaurus, as Ibrahim et al. (2014) demonstrated cervicals with that morphology belong to that genus. Chiarenza and Cau (2016) noted the paratypes were not found close to the holotype, and that the braincase MNN IGU3 lacks several characters present in Carcharodontosaurus+Giganotosaurus. Furthermore, the two braincase characters proposed to diagnose Carcharodontosaurus by Brusatte and Sereno are also present in Giganotosaurus. Thus MNN IGU3 may be a non-carcharodontosaurine.
References- Sereno, Wilson, and Conrad, 2004. New dinosaurs link southern landmasses in the mid-Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271(1546), 1325-1330.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2005. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and its implications for allosauroid phylogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 40A.
Brusatte and Sereno, 2007. A new species of Carcharodontosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(4), 902-916.
Ibrahim, Sereno, Dal Sasso, Maganuco, Fabbri, Martill, Zouhri, Myhrvold and Iurino, 2014. Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur. Science. 345(6204), 1613-1616.
Chiarenza and Cau, 2016. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa. PeerJ. 4:e1754.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1953)
Albian-Early Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous
Tegama Group, Niger

Material- (MNNHN Td. 2269) lateral tooth fragment (Lapparent, 1960)
(MNNHN coll.; from In Abangarit) two braincase fragments, 137 teeth (anterior teeth- 80x33 mm, 77x31 mm, 62x28 mm, 64x27 mm, 54x26 mm; lateral teeth- 125x47 mm, 70x45 mm, 105x40 mm, 90x37 mm, 87x36 mm), proximal caudal vertebra (120 mm), distal caudal vertebra, manual phalanx II-2 (60 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, etc.). Over a hundred of the teeth are carcharodontosaurid, however. Carcharodontosaurid material may be referrable to Carcharodontosaurus sp. nov., based on provenance. A pedal ungual from In Abangarit referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent matches the Spinosaurus B morphotype that has been shown to be Spinosaurus by Ibrahim et al. (2014). The carcharodontosaurid tooth fragment MNNHN Td. 2269 was described by Lapparent as being from the younger Elrhaz Formation, but Taquet (1976) notes it came from a cliff of Albian deposits.
References- Lapparent, 1953. Gisements de dinosauriens dans le "Continental intercalaire" d'In Abangharit (Saharia meridional). Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris. 236, 1905-1906.
Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Taquet, 1976. Géologie et Paléontologie du Gisement de Gadoufaoua (Aptien du Niger) [Geology and Paleontology of the Gadoufaoua Locality (Aptian of Niger)]. Cahiers de Paléontologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 191 pp.
Ibrahim, Sereno, Dal Sasso, Maganuco, Fabbri, Martill, Zouhri, Myhrvold and Iurino, 2014. Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur. Science. 345(6204), 1613-1616.
C? sp. indet. (Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978)
Early Albian, Early Cretaceous
Chenini Formation, Tunisia

Material- (MGGC 21891) incomplete mid caudal vertebra (Fanti et al., 2014)
(MGGCTUN coll.; Morphotype 2) thirteen teeth (27-55 mm) (Fanti et al., 2014) [check Fanti et al. for details]
four teeth (Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978)
Comments- The caudal vertebra was assigned to Carcharodontosauridae by Fanti et al. (2014).
References- Schluter and Schwarzhans, 1978. Eine Bonebed-Lagerstatte aus dem Wealden Sud-Tunesiens (Umgebung Ksar Krerachfa). Berliner geowissenchaftliche Abhandlungen A. 8, 53-65.
Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Ghanmi, Jaeger, Martin, Mazin and Tong, 1988. Nouvelles decouvertes de vertebres fossiles dans l'Albien du Sud tunisien. Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France, 8th series. 4(2), 335-339.
Benton, Bouaziz, Buffetaut, Martill, Ouaja, Soussi and Trueman, 2000. Dinosaurs and other fossil vertebrates from fluvial deposits in the Lower Cretaceous of Southern Tunisia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 157, 227-246.
Buffetaut and Ouaja, 2002. A new specimen of Spinosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia, with remarks on the evolutionary history of the Spinosauridae. Bulletin de la societie geologiques de France.; 173(5), 415-421.
Fanti, Cau, Martinelli and Contessi, 2014. Integrating palaeoecology and morphology in theropod diversity estimation: A case from the Aptian-Albian of Tunisia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 410, 39-57.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1951)
Albian-Early Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous-Late Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Tunisia

Material- (MNNHN coll.) five teeth (Lapparent, 1960)
(from Dahar) nine teeth (Lapparent, 1951)
Comments- These teeth are said to have Carcharodontosaurus' 'characteristic thickness and form', so may be carcharodontosaurid.
References- Lapparent, 1951. Decouverte de dinosauriens associes la und faunad de reptiles et de poissons, dans le Cretaceous inferieur de l'extreme sud tunisien. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris. 232, 1430-1432.
Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Elrhaz Formation, Niger

Material- (MNN GDF coll.) postorbital (Taquet, 1976)
?(MNNHN coll.) mid caudal vertebra (>85 mm), radius (~110 mm), manual ungual (85 mm), pedal phalanx (85 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material described by Lapparent was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, etc.). Taquet (1976) notes the tooth MNNHN Td. 2250 is not referrable to Carcharodontosaurus, contra Lapparent. The tooth fragment MNNHN Td. 2269 described by Lapparent from this locality is carcharodontosaurid, but Taquet notes it came from a cliff of Albian deposits. Taquet describes a postorbital as being similar to Acrocanthosaurus, so this may belong to Carcharodontosaurus.
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Taquet, 1976. Géologie et Paléontologie du Gisement de Gadoufaoua (Aptien du Niger) [Geology and Paleontology of the Gadoufaoua Locality (Aptian of Niger)]. Cahiers de Paléontologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 191 pp.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Berriasian-Barremian, Early Cretaceous
Irhazer Group, Niger

Material- (MNNHN coll.) partial cervical vertebra, two dorsal vertebrae (120 mm), two sacral vertebrae (280 mm combined), mid caudal vertebra (115 mm), three caudal vertebrae (100, 110, 120 mm), two distal chevrons (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, etc.).
Reference- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Niger

Material- (MNNHN coll.; from Tefidet) two mid caudal vertebrae (85 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
(from Akarazeras) teeth (Taquet, 1976)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, etc.).
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Taquet, 1976. Géologie et Paléontologie du Gisement de Gadoufaoua (Aptien du Niger) [Geology and Paleontology of the Gadoufaoua Locality (Aptian of Niger)]. Cahiers de Paléontologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 191 pp.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Sahara Desert

Material- (MNNHN coll.) eight vertebrae, partial humerus, distal manual phalanx (Lapparent, 1960)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, etc.).
Reference- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
C? sp. indet. (Buffetaut, 1989)
Late Albian-Early Cenomanian, Early Cretaceous
Tegama Formation?, Morocco

Reference- Buffetaut, 1989. New remains of the enigmatic dinosaur Spinosaurus from the Cretaceous of Morocco and the affinities between Spinosaurus and Baryonyx. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte. 1989(2), 79-87.
C? sp. indet. (Lapparent, 1960)
Albian, Early Cretaceous
Continental Intercalaire, Algeria

Material- ?(MNNHN coll.; from Alrar) caudal vertebra (60 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
(MNNHN coll.; from Aoulef) dorsal centrum (75 mm), proximal caudal centrum (105 mm), few mid caudal vertebrae (~70-100 mm), caudal vertebra (80 mm) (Lapparent, 1960)
(from Oued Boudjihane) teeth (Bassoullet and Iliou, 1967)
Comments- This material was not found associated, so could belong to multiple individuals of several large theropod taxa (Deltadromeus, Bahariasaurus, Spinosaurus, etc.). A manual ungual from Dijoua referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent matches bone taxon J of Russell (1996), identified as Spinosaurus by Ibrahim et al. (2014). A distal metatarsal from Alrar referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent is actually a manual phalanx and matches bone taxon I of Russell. Russell notes it could belong to the same taxon as the ungual, so this may be Spinosaurus as well. Finally, a pedal ungual from Alrar referred to C. saharicus by Lapparent matches the Spinosaurus B morphotype which has also been identified as Spinosaurus by Ibrahim et al..
References- Lapparent, 1960. Les dinosauriens du "Continental intercalaire" du Sahara central. Memoirs of the Geological Society of France. 88A, 1-57.
Bassoullet and Iliou, 1967. Discovery of dinosaurs associated with crocodilians and fish in the Lower Cretaceous of the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Société Géologique de la France, Comptes Rendus Sommaire des Sciences. 1967, 294-295.
Russell, 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Bulletin du Muse'um national d'Histoire naturelle (4e se'r.). 18, 349-402.
Ibrahim, Sereno, Dal Sasso, Maganuco, Fabbri, Martill, Zouhri, Myhrvold and Iurino, 2014. Semiaquatic adaptations in a giant predatory dinosaur. Science. 345(6204), 1613-1616.
C? sp. indet. (Bond and Bromley, 1970)
Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous
Gokwe Formation, Zimbabwe

Material- teeth
Reference- Bond and Bromley, 1970. Sediments with the remains of dinosaurs near Gokwe, Rhodesia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 8, 313-327.

Giganotosaurinae Coria and Currie, 2006
Definition- (Giganotosaurus carolinii, Mapusaurus rosea <- Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified from Coria and Currie, 2006)
= Giganotosaurini Coria and Currie, 2006 vide Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
Definition- (Giganotosaurus carolinii <- Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
Diagnosis- (after Coria and Currie, 2006) femur with a weak fourth trochanter; shallow and broad extensor groove.
short distal caudal prezygapophyses (<25% of central length); scapular acromion rises from blade at low angle; cruciate ridge in femoral flexor groove absent.
References- Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.

Tyrannotitan Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005
T. chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005
Aptian, Early Cretaceous
Cerro Castano Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut, Argentina

Holotype- (MPEF-PV 1156) (~11.4 m) incomplete dentaries, partial second dorsal neural arch, partial third dorsal vertebra, incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra, incomplete fifth dorsal vertebra, incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal neural spine, ninth dorsal neural spine, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, fourteenth dorsal neural spine, gastral fragments, first sacral neural spine, proximal caudal vertebra, six chevrons, proximal scapulocoracoid, distal humerus, radii (one partial, one fragmentary), ilial fragments, incomplete pubes, incomplete ischia, femora, fibula
Paratype- (MPEF-PV 1157) (~12.2 m) incomplete jugal, quadratojugal, incomplete dentary (680 mm), two teeth, atlas, incomplete seventh cervical vertebra, incomplete first dorsal vertebra, incomplete fourth dorsal vertebra, incomplete sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, partial eighth dorsal neural arch, twelfth dorsal centrum, thirteenth dorsal centrum, fourteenth dorsal centrum, dorsal rib fragment, fourteenth dorsal rib, partial sacrum, incomplete distal caudal vertebra, chevron, femur (1.40 m), distal metatarsal II, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, phalanx IV-2, phalanx III-3
Referred- (MPEF-PV 10821) tooth (Canale et al., 2015)
eighteen teeth (Canale et al., 2015)
Diagnosis- (after Novas et al., 2005) teeth with bilobate denticles on mesial carina.
(after Canale et al., 2015) dentary with an anteroventrally-posterodorsally symphyseal margin in lateral view; second and third dorsal vertebrae with well-developed accessory lamina connecting anterior and
posterior centrodiapophyseal laminae; fibular fossa extended over the proximal end of the crista tibiofibularis in the femoral shaft; proximomedial fossa of the fibula with posteriorly projected anterior border.
Other diagnoses- Canale et al. (2015) noted the depth of the Meckelian groove is similar to Carcharodontosaurus? iguidensis, Giganotosaurus and Allosaurus, thus Novas et al.'s (2005) deep Meckelian groove is invalid. Similarly, Canale et al. noted the posterior dorsal neural spine ligament scars are equally well developed in Acrocanthosaurus, Giganotosaurus and Mapusaurus, contra Novas et al..
Comments- Novas et al. (2005) list three pedal phalanges as being present in the holotype ("2.I, 2.II and 3.III"), but also illustrate an ungual supposedly from digit II, which wouldn't correspond to any of these. The skeletal reconstruction only shows two phalanges- ungual III and a distal phalanx. Canale et al. (2015) reidentified the phalanges as II-2, ungual II, IV-2 and IV-3. The supposed ulna was reidentified as a radius and several presacral centra had revised positions in Canale et al..
References- Rich, Vickers-Rich, Novas, Cúneo, Puerta and Vacca, 2000. Theropods from the "Middle" Cretaceous Chubut Group of the San Jorge sedimentary basin, Central Patagonia. A preliminary note. GAIA. 15, 111-115.
Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005. A large Cretaceous theropod from Patagonia, Argentina, and the evolution of carcharodontosaurids. Naturwissenschaften. 92(5), 226-230.
Canale, Novas and Pol, 2015. Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of Tyrannotitan chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005 (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Historical Biology. 27(1), 1-32.

Mapusaurus Coria and Currie, 2006
= "Mapusaurus" Fiorillo and Eberth, 2004
M. roseae Coria and Currie, 2006
= "Mapusaurus rosae" Papolio, 2004
Late Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Huincul Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MCF-PVPH-108.1) nasal
Paratypes- (MCF-PVPH-108.5) incomplete lacrimal/prefrontal
(MCF-PVPH-108.45) incomplete humerus (~300 mm)
(MCF-PVPH-108.83) axial neural arch
(MCF-PVPH-108.90) mid cervical neural arch
(MCF-PVPH-108.115) maxilla
(MCF-PVPH-108.125) partial dentary
(MCF-PVPH-108.128) ilium (1.05 m)
(MCF-PVPH-108.165) ischium (1.01 m)
(MCF-PVPH-108.167) incomplete jugal
(MCF-PVPH-108.177) postorbital
(MCF-PVPH-108.179) splenial
(MCF-PVPH-108.202) (~12.6 m) fibula (860 mm)
Referred- (MCF-PVPH-108.2) partial dentary (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.3) (~5.5 m; juvenile) partial dentary (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.4) postorbital (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.6) quadrate (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.7) angular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.8) anterior dentary tooth (65x33x20 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.9) mid dentary tooth (71x32x17 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.10) posterior tooth (41x25x13 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.11) maxillary fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.12) anterior nasal fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.14) manual ungual II(?) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.15) partial surangular (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.16) tooth (50x28x15 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.17) posterior nasal fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.18) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.19) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.21) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.22) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.23) pedal phalanx III-1 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.24) pedal phalanx III-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.25) partial femur, pedal phalanx III-2 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.26) pedal phalanx III-1 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.27) pedal phalanx II-2(?) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.28) pedal phalanx III-3 (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.31) (~6.4 m) metatarsal III (454 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.32, 34-36) (~6.0-6.1 m) metatarsal II, metatarsal II (385 mm), metatarsal III (434 mm), metatarsal IV (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.33, 188) (~6.5-7.2 m) metatarsal II (450 mm), metatarsal III (460 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.37) (~7.3 m) metatarsal IV (475 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.38, 200) (~6.6 m) metatarsal II (415 mm), metatarsal III (>410 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.39) partial dentary (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.41) tooth (FABL >23 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.42) tooth (33x17.7x13.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.43) tooth (53x31x14.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.44) (~9.9 m) femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.46) radius (Coria and Currie, 2006)
?(MCF-PVPH-108.48) fused proximal metacarpal II and III (or distal humerus) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.50) scapula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.51) partial fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.52) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.53) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.54) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.57) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.58) (~9.7 m) tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.59) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.61) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.62) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.63) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.64) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.65) partial femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.66) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.67) (~8.1 m) tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.68) (~9.8 m) tibia (1.04 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.69) scapular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.70) incomplete astragalus (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.71) partial coracoid (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.73) partial tibia (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.75) mid caudal vertebra (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.76) mid caudal vertebra (165 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.78) mid caudal vertebra (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.79) distal caudal vertebra (97 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.80) posterior dorsal centrum (165 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.81) proximal caudal vertebra (140 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.82) anterior dorsal vertebra (87 mm; excluding anterior ball) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.84) mid dorsal neural arch (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.85) dorsal neural arch (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.89) fifth sacral centrum (135 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.95) proximal ischium (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.96) proximal ischium (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.97) dorsal chevron (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.100) lacrimal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.101) lacrimal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.102) quadrate (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.103) posterior dentary tooth (24x20x9 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.106) anterior dorsal rib (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.109) manual phalanx II-2 (80 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.110) tooth (81.5x30x10.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.111) tooth (77x38x17 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.113) tooth (54x19x8.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.114) tooth (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.116) furcula or anterior gastralium (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.120) tooth (36x22 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.124) metatarsal II (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.131) tooth (?x19x8 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.132) (~8.4 m) fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.138) maxilla, tooth (47x23 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.139) partial prearticular (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.141) tooth (39x28x12 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.142) maxilla (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.145) (~12.2 m) pubic shaft (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.148) proximal pubis (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.149) proximal pubis (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.153) postorbital (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.162) cervical epipophysis (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.166) tooth (42x23x16 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.168) jugal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.169) partial maxilla, tooth (68 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.170) quadrate (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.171) tooth (56x29x16 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.173) tooth (>73x37 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.175) partial dorsal rib (Bell and Coria, 2013)
(MCF-PVPH-108.176) tooth (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.180) tooth (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.181) ilial fragment (>1.05 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.183) incomplete lacrimal/prefrontal (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.185) (~12.2 m) scapular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.187) scapular fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.189) (~8.3 m) fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.196) fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.198) pedal ungual II or IV (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.201) (~6.3 m) metatarsal III (450 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.203) (~10.2 m) femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.205) mid caudal vertebra (120 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.209) first sacral centrum (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.210) dorsal chevron (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.220) partial fibula (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.230) gastralium fragment (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.233) (~9.5 m) femur (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.234) partial femur (1.30 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.245) partial ilium (~1.05 m) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.246) metatarsal I (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108.247) distal caudal vertebra (44 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MCF-PVPH-108) few dorsal ribs, hundreds of dorsal rib fragments, gastralium fragments, more than nine pedal phalanges (Coria and Currie, 2006)
Diagnosis- (after Coria and Currie, 2006) upper quadratojugal process of jugal splits into two prong (unknown in Giganotosaurus); small anterior mylohyoid foramen positioned above dentary contact with splenial (unknown in Giganotosaurus); second and third metacarpals fused (supposed carpometacarpus may be distal humerus); humerus with broad distal end and little separation between condyles (unknown in Giganotosaurus); brevis fossa of ilium extends deeply into excavation dorsal to ischial peduncle.
(after Carrano et al., 2012) differ from Giganotosaurus in- lacking a second pneumatic foramen on the medial quadrate; details of the topology of the nasal rugosities.
Comments- The above material comes from at least nine individuals. Carrano et al. (2012) believe MCF-PVPH-108.48 is a distal humerus and not a carpometacarpus as Coria and Currie (2006) described it. While non-maniraptoriforms otherwise lack metacarpal fusion and it does resemble a distal humerus, it differs from Mapusaurus in having two bulbous condyles with a notch between them and a large epicondyle, so may belong to another theropod. MCF-PVPH-108.220 was described as a partial fibula by Coria and Currie, but reidentified as a pathological dorsal rib by Bell and Coria (2013).
This taxon was discovered in 1995, but only reported to Coria in 1997, when he and Currie examined the material. It was announced at that years Society of Vertebrate Paleontology meeting, and described briefly in an abstract (Coria and Currie, 1997). At the time, only the remains of an 8 meter long specimen were known, and it was identified as an adult. Coria and Currie returned to the site in 1998 to discover the presence of at least six individuals, some of which Currie said could be larger than Giganotosaurus’ holotype. The largest specimens are MCF-PVPH-145, 185 and 202, which are about 100-103% the size of the Giganotosaurus holotype.
The association of several individuals was suggested to be due to pack behavior. This was reported to the popular media in May 1999, and later described in another abstract (Eberth et al., 2000). Later (Eberth and McCrea, 2001), the minimum number of individuals was increased to eight. This paper finds the probable cause of death to be drought and notes the bones experienced at least two flooding events and were exposed and trampled over more than one season. However, they state several alternatives exist besides gregarious behavior to explain the find, including environmental stress and breeding. In the final publication, Coria and Currie (2006) raised the minimum number of individuals to nine.
It was reported on the internet that a magazine had termed the taxon Giganotosaurus "argentine", but this has yet to be confirmed and would be a nomen nudum in any case. Fiorillo and Eberth (2004) used the name "Mapusaurus" in their taphonomy chapter in The Dinosauria 2nd. edition, probably by accident. Papolio (2004) listed it as "Mapusaurus rosae" in a field guide.
References- Coria and Currie, 1997. A new theropod from the Rio Limay Formation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 40A.
Eberth, Currie, Coria, Garrido and Zonneveld, 2000. Large-theropod bonebed, Neuquen, Argentina: Paleoecological importance. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 39A.
Eberth and Crea, 2001. Were large theropods gregarious? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 21(3), 46A-47A.
Fiorillo and Eberth, 2004. Dinosaur taphonomy. In Weishampel, Dodson and Osmolska (eds.). The Dinosauria: Second Edition. 607-613.
Papolio, 2004. Animales Prehistóricos de América del Sur. Carlos Papolio. 96 pp.
Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Bell and Coria, 2013. Palaeopathological survey of a population of Mapusaurus (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous Huincul Formation, Argentina. PLoS ONE. 8(5), e63409.
Canale, Novas, Salgado and Coria, 2015. Cranial ontogenetic variation in Mapusaurus roseae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) and the probable role of heterochrony in carcharodontosaurid evolution. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 89(4), 983-993.

Giganotosaurus Coria and Salgado, 1995
G. carolinii Coria and Salgado, 1995
= Carcharodontosaurus carolinii (Coria and Salgado, 1995) Figueiredo, 1998
Early Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous
Candeleros Formation of Rio Limay Subgroup, Neuquen, Argentina

Holotype- (MUCPv-Ch1) (12.2 m, 5 tons) (skull- ~1.8 m) premaxilla, maxilla, maxillary teeth (74, 97 mm), nasal, lacrimal, postorbital, quadrates (410 mm), braincase, ectopterygoid, pterygoid, anterior dentary, dentary tooth, tooth (>82x45x18 mm), tooth (102x39.5x22 mm), tooth (88x33.5x20 mm), axis, most postaxial cervical vertebrae, most dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, first caudal vertebra, caudal vertebrae 7-21, two distal caudal vertebrae, eight chevrons, partial scapula (727 mm), partial coracoid, ilium (1.54 m), pubes (1.11 m), ischia (1.2 m), femora (1.43 m), tibia (1.12 m), fibula (835 mm), metatarsi, pedal elements
Referred- (FPDM coll.) tooth (87x44.2x19.5 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
(MUCPv-52) tooth (90 mm) (Calvo, 1999)
(MUCPv-95) (~13.2 m, 6.2 tons) (skull ~1.95 m) incomplete dentary, teeth (Calvo and Coria, 2000)
tooth (56x31.5x17 mm) (Coria and Currie, 2006)
teeth (Valais and Apesteguia, 2001)
Diagnosis- (after Carrano et al., 2012) two pneumatic foramina on medial surface of quadrate.
Comments- Carrano et al. (2012) report a femur length of 1.365 m for the holotype and believe the skull to be less than 1.5 m long when reconstructed correctly.
The combination Carcharodontosaurus carolinii was first used by Figueiredo (1998) (probably due to confusing Carcharodontosaurus and Giganotosaurus, as it was said to be discovered in 1995 but found in Morocco), but was used as an explicit new combination by Paul (2010).
Canale et al. (2015) noted the scapulocoracoid is actually damaged, so that the low acromion and unexpanded distal end are artificial.
References- Coria and Sagado, 1994. A giant theropod from the middle Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14(3), 22A.
Coria and Salgado, 1995. A new giant carnivorous dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Patagonia. Nature. 377, 224-226.
Figueiredo, 1998. Os dinossáurios carnívoros: A sua descrição e modo de vida. Centro Portugues de Geo-historia e Pre-historia. 4 pp.
Calvo, 1999. Dinosaurs and other vertebrates of the Lake Ezequiel Ramos Mexia area, Neuquen - Patagonia, Argentina. In Tomida, Rich and Vickers-Rich (eds.). Proceedings of the Second Godwanan Dinosaur Symposium. 13-45.
Calvo and Coria, 2000. New specimen of Giganotosaurus carolinii supports it as the largest theropod ever found. Gaia. 15, 117-122.
Valais and Apesteguia, 2001. Dientes asignables a Giganontosaurus (Carcharodontososauria, Theropoda) provenientens de "La Buitera", Formacion Candeleros, provincia de Rio Negro. Ameghiniana. 38(4), 6R-7R.
Coria and Currie, 2002. The braincase of Giganotosaurus carolinii (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(4), 802-811.
Coria and Currie, 2006. A new carcharodontosaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Argentina. Geodiversitas. 28(1), 71-118.
Carabajal and Canale, 2010. Cranial endocast of the carcharodontosaurid theropod Giganotosaurus carolinii Coria & Salgado, 1995. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 258(2), 249-256.
Paul, 2010. The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs. Princeton University Press. 320 pp.
Eddy and Clarke, 2011. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). PLoS ONE. 6(3), e17932.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
Novas, Agnolin, Ezcurra, Porfiri and Canale, 2013. Evolution of the carnivorous dinosaurs during the Cretaceous: The evidence from Patagonia. Cretaceous Research. 45, 174-215.
Canale, Novas and Pol, 2015. Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of Tyrannotitan chubutensis Novas, de Valais, Vickers-Rich and Rich, 2005 (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina. Historical Biology. 27(1), 1-32.
Paulina Carabajal, Canale and Kundrat, 2015. Nueva informacion sobre la neuroanatomia de Giganotosaurus carolinii usando tomografias computadas: Morfologia del oidointerno. XXIX Jornadas Argentinas de Paleontología de Vertebrados, resumenes. Ameghiniana. 52(4) suplemento, 32.

Allosauridae Marsh, 1878
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (Holtz et al., 2004)
Other definitions- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi) (modified from Padian and Hutchinson, 1997)
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified from Sereno, 1998)
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus) (Brusatte and Sereno, 2008)
= Labrosauridae Marsh, 1882
= Antrodemidae Stromer, 1934
= Allosaurinae Marsh, 1878 sensu Paul, 1988
= Allosauridae sensu Sereno, 1998
Definition- (Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Monolophosaurus jiangi, Cryolophosaurus ellioti, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus) (modified)
= Allosauridae sensu Brusatte and Sereno, 2008
(Allosaurus fragilis <- Sinraptor dongi, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, Passer domesticus)
Comments- Brusatte and Sereno's (2008) definition differs from Holtz et al.'s (2004) by including Passer as an external specifier. In this case, I agree it's useful for cases like Paul (2002), Longrich (2001) and Coria and Salgado (1995). I wonder if Tyrannosaurus might be a useful external specifier as well, as tyrannosaurids and allosaurids have often been posited as sister groups (Paul, 1988; Kurzanov, 1989; Molnar et al., 1990). However, in all these cases, Carcharodontosaurus was seen as an intermediate between Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus, which would keep tyrannosaurids from being allosaurids under Brusatte and Sereno's and Holtz et al.'s definitions.

Undescribed possible allosaurid (Hand and Bakker, 2000)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Como Bluffs)
Material- ("larger than Allosaurus") (juvenile?) ulna, radius, semilunate carpal, manus including manual ungual I
Diagnosis- (after Hand and Bakker, 2000) arm 25-30% shorter compared to body than in Allosaurus; very robust; radius and ulna shorter than manual ungual I (~185% longer in A. fragilis); manual ungual I long and straight with large flexor tubercle.
Comments- This has only been mentioned in an abstract as a new allosaurid, though the large size, robust and short arm, shortened forearm and enlarged manual ungual I remind one of Torvosaurus. Note this is not "Wyomingraptor", as it was discovered in 1999 while the nomen nudum was published in 1997.
References- Hand and Bakker, 2000. Implications of the functional morphology of a new allosaurid forearm from the Como Bluffs. The Florida Symposium on Dinosaur Bird Evolution. Publications in Paleontology No. 2, Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History. 17.

unnamed possible allosaurid (Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Sudre and Sige, 1993)
Early Valanginian, Early Cretaceous
unnamed formation, Gard, France

Material- (MM-2) proximal manual phalanx II-2
(MM-8) fragmentary dorsal rib
(MM-9) fragmentary dorsal rib
(MM-11) manual ungual II
(MM-12) manual ungual III (~82 mm)
(MM-13) manual ungual III
(MM-14) manual phalanx III-2 (~50 mm)
(MM-15) manual phalanx III-3 (67 mm)
(MM-16) metacarpal III (10.2 mm)
(MM-17) manual ungual II (~114 mm)
(MM-18) manual phalanx II-1 (10.2 mm)
(MM-19) metacarpal I (82 mm)
(MM-20) humerus (~210 mm)
(MM-21) scapular fragment
Comments- Similar to Allosaurus in the medial concavity of metacarpal I, in which it is unlike Acrocanthosaurus. Thus it is provisionally referred to this family.
References- Perez-Moreno, Sanz, Sudre and Sige, 1993. A theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Southern France. Revue de Paleobiologie. 7, 173-188.

unnamed allosaurid (Zinke, 1998)
Early Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Alcobaca Formation, Portugal

Diagnosis- (after Zinke, 1998) differs from Allosaurus in lacking downward-pointing blood grooves.
Material- (IPFUB GUI D 66) tooth (Rauhut, 2000)
(IPFUB GUI D 191-194) four teeth (~8.75 mm)
Comments- Chure (2000) doubted they could be referred to Allosauridae, with the rather weak defense of "they are just more similar to Allosaurus than other taxa", which would be in itself an acceptable reason to refer them to this family.
References- Zinke, 1998. Small theropod teeth from the Upper Jurassic coal mine of Guimarota (Portugal). Palaontologische Zeitschrift. 72, 179-189.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Rauhut, 2000. The dinosaur fauna from the Guimarota mine. In Martin and Krebs (eds.). Guimarota, A Jurassic Ecosystem. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil. 75-82.

unnamed Allosauridae (Alcala, Royo-Torres, Cobos and Luque, 2009)
Late Tithonian-Middle Berriasian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
Villar del Arzobispo Formation, Spain

Material- (CPT-1326) tooth (16.5x8.5x5.1 mm)
(CPT-1437) tooth (~30.5x13x6.7 mm)
(CPT-1518) tooth (29.4x10.6x4.9 mm)
(CPT-1660) tooth (16x?x5.7 mm)
(CPT-2331) tooth (19.5x9.2x5.5 mm)
References- Alcala, Royo-Torres, Cobos and Luque, 2009. Updating dinosaur record from Teruel (Aragon, Spain). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 53A.
Gascó, Cobos, Royo-Torres, Mampel and Alcalá, 2012. Theropod teeth diversity from the Villar del Arzobispo Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) at Riodeva (Teruel, Spain). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. 92(2), 273-285.

undescribed Allosauridae (Gerke and Wings, 2014)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Langenberg Quarry and/or Hannover, Germany
Material
- (NLMH coll.) teeth
Reference- Gerke and Wings, 2014. Characters versus morphometrics: A case study with isolated theropod teeth from the Late Jurassic of Lower Saxony, Germany, reveals an astonishing diversity of theropod taxa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2014, 137.

unnamed possible allosaurid (Park et al., 2000)
Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous
Hasandong Formation of the Shindong Group, South Korea

Material- (KPE 8004) tooth
(KPE 8005) tooth
References- Park, Yank, and Currie, 2000. Early Cretaceous dinosaur teeth of Korea. In Lee (ed.). International Dinosaur Symposium for Kosong County in Korea. Paleontological Society of Korea Special Publication. 4, 85-98.
Lee, 2003. Dinosaur bones and eggs in South Korea. Memoir of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. 2, 113-121.

unnamed possible allosaurid (Dong, 1997)
Barremian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Xinminbao Group, Gansu, China

Material- (IVPP V.11122-3) tooth (24 mm)
Comments- Though referred to the Allosauridae by Dong (1997), Chure (2001) found no support for this assignment and considered it Theropoda indet.. The tooth is moderately tall and recurved with both mesial and distal serrations. The former may be confined to the apical half and seem subequal in size to the distal ones.
References- Dong, 1997. On small theropods from Mazongshan Area, Gansu Province, China. In Dong (ed.). Sino-Japanese Silk Road Dinosaur Expedition. China Ocean Press, Beijing. 13-18.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.

undescribed allosaurid (Matsukawa and Obata, 1994)
Aptian-Albian, Early Cretaceous
Zouyun Formation, Mongolia

Comments- Matsukawa and Obata (1994) report through personal communication with Mateer (1992) that an indeterminate allosaurid was discovered in the Aptian-Albian Zouyun Formation of Mongolia.
Reference- Matsukawa and Obata, 1994. Cretaceous, a contribution to dinosaur facies in Asia based on molluscan paleontology and stratigraphy. Cretaceous Research. 15, 101-125.

undescribed allosaurid (Serrano-Martinez, Ortega and Knoll, 2013)
Bathonian?, Middle Jurassic
Argiles de l'Irhazer of the Irhazer Group, Niger

Material- two teeth
Comments- Serrano-Martinez et al. (2013) noted these plot with allosaurids when examined morphometrically.
Reference- Serrano-Martinez, Ortega and Knoll, 2013. Isolated theropod teeth from the "Argiles de l'Irhazer" (Middle Jurassic) of Niger. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 210.

Allosaurus? ferox Marsh, 1896
= Antrodemus ferox (Marsh, 1896) Ostrom and McIntosh, 1966
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Quarry 14)
Holotype- (YPM 1893) partial skull (partial premaxillae, incomplete maxilla, incomplete jugal, nasal fragment, lacrimal fragment, two cranial fragments), dentaries (one partial, one incomplete), surangular fragment, dorsal central fragment, dorsal rib fragments, (?)scapular fragment, incomplete pedal ungual
Comments- Allosaurus ferox (Marsh, 1896) is from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member (Quarry 14) of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming. It is based on YPM 1893 (partial skull, partial dentaries, partial surangular, dorsal central fragment, dorsal rib fragments, scapular fragment, incomplete pedal ungual), which was found in 1882. Named in a footnote, Marsh only mentioned that it has a maxillary fenestra unlike Ceratosaurus, which is now known to be present in all Allosaurus specimens. Still, the few requirements necessary for publication prior to 1930 means it's a valid name according to the ICZN. Hay (1908) believed it to be a typo for Allosaurus fragilis. It's been largely ignored thanks to its obscure origin and homonymy with Labrosaurus ferox (USNM 2315 from Colorado), though generally has been considered a junior synonym of fragilis (e.g. Molnar et al., 1990). Glut (1997) published two photos of the specimen, and Chure (2000) has been the only author to describe it. He states the few odd features (e.g. convex ventral maxillary margin) are caused by incorrect restoration, though the antorbital fossa is better developed than most specimens. Chure refers ferox to Allosaurus fragilis as it has an angled ventral jugal margin unlike his A. "jimmadseni". As no elements which differ between Allosaurus and Saurophaganax are preserved, ferox is here viewed as Allosauridae indet..
References- Marsh, 1896. The dinosaurs of North America. United States Geological Survey, 16th Annual Report, 1894-95. 55, 133-244.
Hay, 1908. On certain genera and species of carnivorous dinosaurs, with special reference to Ceratosaurus nasicornis Marsh. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 35(1648), 351-366.
Ostrom and McIntosh, 1966. Marsh's Dinosaurs, the collection from Como Bluff. Yale University Press, New Haven. 388 pp.
Molnar, Kurzanov and Dong, 1990. Carnosauria. In Weishampel, Osmólska and Dodson (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press. 169-209.
Glut, 1997. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 1076 pp.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.

Antrodemus Leidy, 1870
A. valens (Leidy, 1870) Leidy, 1870
= Poekilopleuron valens Leidy 1870
= Megalosaurus valens (Leidy, 1870) Nopsca, 1901
= Allosaurus valens (Leidy, 1870) Huene, 1932
Morrison Formation?, Middle Park, Grand County, Colorado, US
Late Jurassic?

Holotype- (USNM 218) partial ?sixth caudal centrum (~125 mm)
Diagnosis- Indeterminate at the level of Neotheropoda but nearly identical to the contemporaneous Allosaurus fragilis.
Comments- The holotype was discovered in 1869 and described by Leidy (1870) as a new species of Poekilopleuron (misspelled Poicilopleuron), but stated if the trabeculae crossing the internal cavity is shown to be of generic significance, "it might be named Antrodemus." This single distinguishing feature is probably positional, as Poekilopleuron only preserves more distal caudals, and Ceratosaurus shows trabeculae in proximal caudals but a single central cavity in distal caudals. It was figured as Antrodemus when in Leidy's (1873) followup paper. Nopcsa (1901) transferred it to Megalosaurus without comment. Gilmore (1920) viewed it as synonymous with Allosaurus based on a section of caudal six from USNM 8367, and it is indeed basically identical. However, he does not also show they can be distinguished from other genera. Matthew and Brown (1922) were the first to note Allosaurus has the advantage of having a 'topotype' (USNM 4734) from the same locality, while the locality of Antrodemus is inexact. Future authors varied in their choice of Antrodemus vs. Allosaurus, Huene (1932) using the impossible combination Allosaurus valens (impossible as Antrodemus has priority). Madsen (1976) viewed Antrodemus as "questionably" generically diagnostic and not specfically diagnostic, though he distinguishes it from Ceratosaurus (narrow ventral edge, smaller median groove, no paired camerae), he does not note any other taxa besides Allosaurus that have similar caudals, and does not recognize other species of Allosaurus besides A. fragilis. Thus neither Gilmore nor Madsen fully supported their ideas of validity. Chure (2000) distinguishes Antrodemus from Ceratosaurus and Torvosaurus (no pleurocoels), states caudals of Saurophaganax "have been too badly damaged during preparation for comparison", and notes definitely referred caudals of Marshosaurus and Stokesosaurus are unknown. He believes the frequency of Allosaurus finds and similarity with Antrodemus suggests these are synonymous genera, but believes it can not be distinguished from A. fragilis or his new A. "jimmadseni". Thus Antrodemus may turn out to be generically diagnostic but is not specifically diagnostic in his view.
Comparing Antrodemus to Saurophaganax confirms the caudals don't definitely differ, with the apparently taller centrum and missing lateral fossae of the latter being potentially positional variation or due to poor preparation. Marshosaurus-relative Condorraptor and Stokesosaurus-relative Juratyrant show no obvious differences, with the minor differences (no ventral groove in Condorraptor's proximal caudal, no obvious chevron facet in Juratyrant's complete proximal caudal centrum) easily being positional variation. Carcharodontosaurids differ in lacking ventral median grooves, though Antrodemus cannot be distinguished from metriacanthosaurids using published information. In conclusion it seems Antrodemus cannot be classified more exactly than Neotheropoda, though it can be distinguished from many particular taxa. It's probable that if more taxa were sectioned or CT scanned to determine their cross sectional shape and internal structure, more could be determined. The near exact structural match, provenence and large number of Allosaurus finds do suggest Antrodemus is the same taxon, though this cannot yet be satisfactorily demonstrated. As the exact stratigraphy is unknown, it's not even known if this would be referrable to the Brushy Basin species or the Salt Wash one if Loewen's taxonomic ideas prove correct. As the diagnostic USNM 4734 is likely to be designated the neotype of Allosaurus fragilis shortly, Allosaurus fragilis will have no meaningful competition to be the valid name for the Morrison allosaurid.
References- Leidy, 1870. Remarks on Poicilopleuron valens, Clidastes intermedius, Leiodon proriger, Baptemys wyomingensis, and Emys stevensonianus. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 22(1), 3-5.
Leidy, 1873. Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the Western territories. Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories. 1-358.
Nopcsa, 1901. Synopsis und Abstammung der Dinosaurier. Foldtani kozlony. 31, 247-288.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 110, 1-154.
Matthew and Brown, 1922. The family Deinodontidae, with notice of a new genus from the Cretaceous of Alberta. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 46(6), 367-385.
Huene, 1932. Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte. Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie. 4(1), viii + 361 pp.
Madsen, 1976. Allosaurus fragilis: A revised osteology. Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulletin. 109, 1-163.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.

Creosaurus Marsh, 1878
C. atrox Marsh, 1878
= Antrodemus atrox (Marsh, 1878) Gilmore, 1920
= Allosaurus atrox (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Reed’s Quarry 1)
Holotype
- (YPM 1890) incomplete premaxilla, incomplete jugal, anterior tooth, two lateral teeth, fragmentary anterior dorsal neural spine (?), partial ?twelfth dorsal rib, two partial fused sacral vertebrae, third sacral rib, two proximal to mid caudal centra (107, 100 mm), partial proximal caudal neural arch, incomplete ~twenty-third caudal neural arch, four mid to distal caudal central fragments, incomplete ~forty-sixth caudal vertebra (78 mm), ?sternum (lost), incomplete ilium (~710 mm), astragalus, distal tarsal III, ?metatarsal (277 mm; lost), pedal phalanx II-1, pedal phalanges III-1, pedal ungual III, pedal phalanx IV-1
Comments- The type of Creosaurus atrox was discovered in 1878. Note this discussion only concerns the holotype, and not the long-snouted morphology called Allosaurus atrox or Creosaurus by e.g. Bakker and Paul (discussed under "Short-snouted fragilis vs. long-snouted atrox?" in the Allosaurus comments). Marsh originally diagnosed this taxon based on trihedral (premaxillary) teeth with serrations, amphicoelous (posterior) centra, elongate distal caudals, elongate metapodials (lost) and sharp unguals, all now known to be standard for carnosaurs. Marsh reported at least one 277 mm long metatarsal, though it has not been commented on since and may be lost prior to 1916 or misidentified. Note that the supposed posterior dorsal vertebra (actually a proximal caudal) identified by Marsh (1884) as Creosaurus is actually YPM 1932. Chure (2000) notes the hyoid and manual ungual listed by Lull (1916 pers. comm. to Gilmore, 1920) are part of the Labrosaurus lucaris type, while the supposed sternal cannot be reconciled with existing specimens. As early as Williston (1878), workers supposed Creosaurus might be synonymous with Allosaurus, with supposed pectoral and forelimb differences mentioned by Williston (1901) and Hay (1908) being due to Marsh's 'Allosaurus' forelimb being a composite with Ceratosaurus and Megalosaurus elements. Osborn (1903) described skulls AMNH 600 and 666 as Creosaurus, which probably gave birth to the concept of long-snouted Creosaurus adopted by Bakker and Paul decades later. There was no justification for referring either skull to Creosaurus, and Osborn referred both to Allosaurus a few years later (Osborn, 1906) and from then on. Gilmore (1920) agreed Creosaurus was a junior synonym of Allosaurus due to a lack of published differences, though he declined to discuss specific synonymization pending further study. Paul and Carpenter (2010) merely stated it was a nomen dubium without evidence. There had been no examination of the Creosaurus holotype after this until Chure's thesis, where it is redescribed and partially illustrated. Note an anterior dorsal neural spine fragment is listed as part of the type, but not described. Chure referred YPM 1890 to Allosaurus sp., stating it "does not show any feature to differentiate it from Allosaurus fragilis or A. jimmadseni", despite the fact the jugal shows the ventral deflection he believes characterizes A. fragilis and the ilium has a vertical ridge that he states "is not present on any A. fragilis specimen" but is on the "jimmadseni" intended type. Chure also notes that the second and third sacrals of atrox are V-shaped ventrally in section, unlike those of other Allosaurus specimens. The fourth and fifth sacrals of "jimmadseni"'s type have this type of venter, but the fourth sacral centra of all Allosaurus specimens have a large lateral foramen, unlike these sacrals. So the sacrum is different from other Allosaurus specimens, no matter which vertebrae are represented. YPM 1890 thus seems to be an intermediate specimen that helps decrease the difference between fragilis and "jimmadseni". Finally, Chure states pedal ungual III differs from A. fragilis in having a proximally directed traingular tuber on the proximodorsal surface, though this seems to be easily explainable by individual variation. In relation to the larger but coeval Saurophaganax, Creosaurus doesn't preserve any elements which are said to differ between it and Allosaurus. It is thus Allosauridae indet., especially as the incomplete sacral and proximal/mid caudal fusion could indicate immaturity.
References- Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. American Journal of Science and Arts. 15, 241-244.
Williston, 1878. American Jurassic dinosaurs. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 6, 42-46.
Marsh, 1884. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VIII. The order Theropoda. The American Journal of Science, series 3. 27, 329-340.
Williston, 1901. The dinosaurian genus Creosaurus, Marsh. American Journal of Science, series 4. 11, 111-114.
Osborn, 1903. The skull of Creosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 19(31), 697-701.
Osborn, 1906. Tyrannosaurus, Upper Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaur (Second communication). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 22(16), 281-296.
Hay, 1908. On certain genera and species of carnivorous dinosaurs, with special reference to Ceratosaurus nasicornis Marsh. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 35(1648), 351-366.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 110, 1-154.
Paul, 1987. The science and art of restoring the life appearance of dinosaurs and their relatives: A rigorous how-to guide. In Czerkas and Olson (eds.). Dinosaurs Past and Present. 2, 4-49.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Paul and Carpenter, 2010. Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(1), 53-56.

Epanterias Cope, 1878
E. amplexus Cope, 1878
= Allosaurus amplexus (Cope, 1878) Paul, 1988
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US
(Cope's Nipple)
Holotype- (AMNH 5767) axis, sixth or seventh cervical centrum (115 mm), first dorsal neural arch, coracoid, distal metatarsal IV
Referred- ?(CPS 99) proximal caudal vertebra, distal caudal vertebra (Bakker, 1990)
Diagnosis- Indeterminate relative to Allosaurus and Saurophaganax.
Comments- Epanterias amplexus (Cope, 1878) is from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member (Cope's Nipple) of the Morrison Formation in Colorado. The holotype is AMNH 5767 (an axis, mid cervical centrum, first dorsal neural arch, coracoid and distal metatarsal IV) and was found in 1877. Only the centrum and neural arch are referenced by Cope, who believed the taxon to be a camarasaurid. The cited vertebral characters are typical of Allosaurus- strongly opisthocoelous cervical with prominent anteriorly placed parapophyses; unelevated, low, wide and anteroposteriorly short dorsal neural arch; no hyposphene before mid dorsals; transversely elongate anterior dorsal neural spine which has three apices; thin anterior dorsal infradiapophyseal laminae; three infradiapophyseal fossae of which the infraprezygapophyseal fossa is vertical; deep postspinal fossa; postzygapophyses which overhang the centrum. However, the claim the anterior dorsal centrum lacks pleurocoels is untrue (Chure, 2000). Osborn and Mook (1921) were the first to recognize that Epanterias was a theropod which "at present cannot be separated from Allosaurus" and illustrate some of the remains. They also provisionally referred ribs initially allocated to Camarasaurus and a femur originally referred to Laelaps trihedrodon by Cope, though Chure says these cannot be located in the AMNH collections. Their identity remains uncertain. Paul (1988) referred amplexus questionably to Allosaurus and thought Saurophaganax was a junior synonym, based on their shared large size and high stratigraphical position, though he did not cite morphological characters supporting this. Bakker (1990) followed this theory and separated Epanterias as a different genus, referring two caudal vertebrae to it. This was presumably based on size and stratigraphy, but as no caudals are preserved in the type they cannot be compared. Contradicting Paul's and Bakker's hypothesis, modern stratigraphical work has placed the average-sized Allosaurus ferox type between Saurophaganax and Epanterias, and the more recently discovered average-sized UMNH VP 5918-5926 is between them as well. Not only that, the recently discovered large allosaur NMMNH P-26083 is stratigraphically very close to the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry which is full of average-sized specimens. While Paul is correct that large allosaurs are too rare to be adults of average-sized allosaurs, Epanterias and NMMNH P-26083 could simply be large individuals or representatives of larger-sized populations. Neither were discovered with average-sized allosaurs in the same quarry, and Bybee et al. (2006) state "Individuals of Allosaurus did not all grow alike" and could not "directly test whether Allosaurus had indeterminate growth." Paul and Carpenter (2010) oddly stated Epanterias "is probably a different taxon from YPM 1930" though also "a nomen dubium because holotype AMNH 5767 ... is insufficiently diagnostic.", with neither assertion backed up with evidence. Chure has been the only author to describe Epanterias in detail and compare it to Saurophaganax and Allosaurus. Compared to the former, it has supposedly differently oriented cervical parapophyses and no dorsal paraspinal lamina. However, I see no difference in parapophyseal orientation (both ~40 degrees anterodorsally) and Chure admits that the Epanterias vertebra is more anterior than known Saurophaganax dorsals with paraspinal laminae, so it may not have developed until more posterior dorsals. Differences with Allosaurus fragilis that Chure notes are a less laterally compressed axial centrum, less rectangular distal outline of metatarsal IV and better developed lateral condyle in that element. Yet the axial centrum seems equally compressed in USNM 4734, and the metatarsal differences were made with comparison to Madsen's composite illustrations. Differences with Allosaurus were considered minor by Chure in any case, and he synonymized Epanterias with Allosaurus fragilis. I agree they are minor if they exist, but also believe it cannot be distinguished from Saurophaganax as noted above. Thus Epanterias amplexus becomes Allosauridae indet. until further distinguishing characters are found.
References- Cope, 1878. A new opisthocoelous dinosaur. American Naturalist. 12(6), 406.
Osborn and Mook, 1921. Camarasaurus, Amphicoelias, and other sauropods of Cope. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. New Series 3(3), 247-387.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Bakker, 1990. A new Latest Jurassic vertebrate fauna from the highest levels of the Morrison Formation at Como Bluff, Wyoming, with comments on Morrison biochronology. Part 1: Biochronology. Hunteria. 2(6), 1-3.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Bybee, Lee and Lamm, 2006. Sizing the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: Assessing growth strategy and evolution of ontogenetic scaling of limbs. Journal of Morphology. 267(3), 347-59.
Paul and Carpenter, 2010. Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(1), 53-56.

Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879
L. lucaris (Marsh, 1878) Marsh, 1879
= Allosaurus lucaris Marsh, 1978
= Antrodemus lucaris (Marsh, 1878) Hay, 1902
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Reed’s Quarry 3)
Holotype- (YPM 1931; holotype of Allosaurus lucaris) incomplete eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical centrum, tenth cervical centrum, second dorsal centrum, fused partial fourth and fifth dorsal vertebrae, neural spine and zygapophyseal fragments, proximal scapulae, incomplete coracoids, humeri (~322 mm), partial ulna, incomplete metacarpal II, phalanx II-1, proximal phalanx II-2
....(YPM 46147) manual ungual
....(YPM coll.) surangular, prearticular, articular, hyoid, three teeth, first dorsal centrum, third dorsal centrum, partial sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal centrum, eighth dorsal centrum, two partial posterior dorsal vertebrae, posterior dorsal centrum, incomplete posterior dorsal rib, five partial proximal caudal vertebrae, three distal caudal centra, twelve distal caudal central fragments, partial neural arch, transverse process, zygopophyseal fragments
Comments- Labrosaurus lucaris is from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member (Reed's Quarry 3) of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming. The holotype YPM 1931 was discovered in 1878. It consists of a partial mandible, hyoid, partial posterior cervical, dorsal and caudal vertebrae, many vertebral fragments, a humerus and partial forelimb. Allosaurus lucaris was originally described and diagnosed based solely on an anterior dorsal vertebra, which was diagnosed by its opisthocoelous centrum with pleurocoels, ventral keel and anteriorly placed parapophyses that are the usual characters of carnosaurs. Marsh (1879) later made lucaris the type of his new genus Labrosaurus, in his new family Allosauridae. He diagnosed it by short and strongly opisthocoelous cervicals, moderately opisthocoelous (anterior) dorsals, both with pleurocoels connected to large internal cavities, tall and transversely expanded neural spines (in posterior cervicals and anterior dorsals), anterior presacrals without hyposphenes, small forelimbs, curved humerus, and large deltopectoral ("radial") crest, all now known in Allosaurus. Gilmore (1920) illustrated the humerus in his plate 6 as Antrodemus valens, though otherwise it has only been illustrated by Chure (2000). Synonymized with 'Antrodemus valens' (Allosaurus fragilis) in Steel's (1970) review, it has been assumed to be a junior synonym since. Chure also claims it shows no unique characters and refers it to A. fragilis, though he does not distinguish it from A. "jimmadseni" or even Saurophaganax. Paul and Carpenter (2010) oddly state it "probably represents a different species from YPM 1930 [the Allosaurus holotype], and may or may not belong to the same genus. It is not sufficiently complete to characterise a species." without defending any of these assertions. Review of the published information indicates pleurocoels are reported in the fifth dorsal ("pectoral 5" of Chure) as in Saurophaganax, yet the proximal outline of manual phalanx II-2 resembles Allosaurus more in being rectangular instead of oval. Either of these could easily be explained by individual variation, and Labrosaurus is here assigned to Allosauridae indet. pending further study.
References- Marsh, 1878. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles. American Journal of Science and Arts. 15, 241-244.
Marsh, 1879, Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part 1. American Journal of Science and Arts. 16, 411-416.
Hay, 1902. Bibliography and catalogue of the fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey. 179, 1-868.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 110, 1-154.
Steel, 1970. Saurischia. Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie. 14, 1-87.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Paul and Carpenter, 2010. Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(1), 53-56.

Saurophaganax Chure, 1995
= "Saurophagus" Stovall vide Ray, 1941
S. maximus Chure, 1995
= "Saurophagus maximus" Stovall vide Ray, 1941 (preoccupied Swainson, 1831)
= Allosaurus maximus (Chure, 1995) Smith, 1998
Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Oklahoma, US

Holotype- (OMNH 1123) fifth dorsal neural arch
Paratypes- (OMNH 780) manual ungual I
(OMNH 1102) mid chevron
(OMNH 1135) atlas
(OMNH 1142) partial quadrate
(OMNH 1152) lateral tooth
(OMNH 1153) lateral tooth
(OMNH 1190) posterior dorsal centrum
(OMNH 1191) metatarsal III
(OMNH 1307) metatarsal II
(OMNH 1338) partial ilium, pedal ungual IV
(OMNH 1370) tibia (955 mm)
(OMNH 1396) metatarsal IV
(OMNH 1425) distal pubis
(OMNH 1438) mid chevron
(OMNH 1444) mid cervical vertebra
(OMNH 1680) lateral tooth
(OMNH 1681) distal metatarsal I
(OMNH 1685) mid chevron
(OMNH 1708) femur (1059 mm)
(OMNH 1737) proximal ischium
(OMNH 1771) postorbital
(OMNH 1935) humerus (545 mm)
(OMNH 2145) partial quadrate
(OMNH 4666; lectotype of "Saurophagus maximus") tibia
Referred- (OMNH 1104) mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1122) proximal caudal neural arch (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1124) metacarpal III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1126) pedal phalanx III-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1127) manual phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1128) incomplete manual ungual III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1180) partial mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1189) dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1192) metatarsal III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1193) metatarsal IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1306) metatarsal IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1364) radius (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1415) radius (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1424) proximal ischium (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1426) incomplete fibula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1433) two anterior sacral centra, sacral rib (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1434) incomplete ulna (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1439) mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1446) partial posterior cervical centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1447) dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1450) anterior dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1461) metatarsal II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1684) mid chevron (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1693) distal humerus (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1694) incomplete fibula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1695) incomplete fibula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1703) proximal ischium (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1707) proximal pubis (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1904) proximal caudal vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1906) anterior dorsal centrum (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1911) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1912) pedal ungual IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1913) pedal ungual IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1914) pedal ungua IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1915) pedal ungual I (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1916) pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1918) pedal phalanx II-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1919) pedal phalanx III-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1920) manual phalanx II-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1921) manual phalanx II-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1924) metatarsal III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1925) pedal phalanx III-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1927) mid caudal vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1928) mid caudal vertebra, metacarpal I (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1929) metacarpal II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1936) metatarsal IV (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 1947) fifth sacral vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2114) femur (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2146) mid cervical vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2147) mid cervical vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2149) distal tibia (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 2154) incomplete scapula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 4016) partial scapula (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10357) proximal caudal vertebra (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10373) pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10375) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10376) pedal phalanx I-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10377) pedal phalanx I-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10381) femur (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 10732) pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52384) pedal phalanx II-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52385) pedal phalanx II-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52386) pedal phalanx III-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52387) pedal phalanx III-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52388) pedal phalanx III-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52389) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52390) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52391) pedal phalanx IV-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52392) pedal phalanx IV-3 (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52393) pedal ungual II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52394) pedal ungual II (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH 52395) pedal ungual III (Chure, 2000)
(OMNH coll.) posterior dorsal centra, metatarsal II, pedal phalanx III-1 (Chure, 2000)
Diagnosis- (after Chure, 1995) no atlantal prezygapophyses (in OMNH 1135); no medial projection from atlantal arch to roof over neural canal (in OMNH 1135); horizontal lamina along base of each side of mid dorsal neural spines arising from spine base anteriorly, free posteriorly (in OMNH 1123); ventral part of chevrons greatly expanded anteriorly (in up to six specimens); femur bowed laterally (in up to three specimens).
(after Chure, 2000) postorbital lacks rugosity (in OMNH 1771); square atlantal intercentrum (in OMNH 1135); mid cervicals with nearly vertical postzygapophyses; mid dorsals have well developed infraprezygapophyseal lamina (in OMNH 2146); mid dorsals with vertically oriented infrapostzygapophyseal lamina (in OMNH 1123); pleurocoels present through fifth dorsal centrum (in OMNH 1123); radius with marked elliptical muscle attachment near proximoventral margin of lateral surface (in up to two specimens); spiral muscle scar on lateral surface of radius shaft (in up to two specimens); proximal end of manual phalanx II-2 oval instead of rectangular (in OMNH 1921); weaker astragalar buttress on anterodistal tibia (in both OMNH 1370 and 2149); medial malleolus projects twice as far medially than Allosaurus (in up to two specimens); distal end of metatarsal IV rectangular instead of triangular (in up to three specimens).
Other diagnoses- Chure (2000) stated that the cnemial crest is deflected laterally more than in Allosaurus, the lateral surface of the lateral tibial condyle is concave (instead of convex), the lateral tibial condyle is more posteriorly placed than in Allosaurus, the fibular crest is more set off from shaft, and the medioventral corner of pedal phalanx III-1's proximal edge being angled inward were all unlike Allosaurus, but that genus shows these conditions too (UUVP coll. from Madsen, 1976). Metatarsal IV is indeed less distally divergent than some A. fragilis (e.g. AMNH 324, DINO 11541), but not other fragilis specimens (e.g. MOR 693).
Comments- At least four individuals are represented by the OMNH material. Chure (1995) originally mentioned anterior cervicals, caudal centra and a tridactyl manus, which would be paratype material if their specimen numbers could be determined. Though generally accepted as a species distinct from A. fragilis, Saurophaganax is represented by multiple individuals with uncertain referral of particular elements to each one, and reportedly distinctive characters are not stated to be present in multiple specimens except for distal chevron expansion and astragalar buttress strength. Indeed, nine of the characters can only be evaluated for one specimen. Thus the apparent distinctiveness of this taxon may be due to individuals each having a few unique characters, as is true of most well described Morrison allosaurs. Resolution will involve more detailed information on each specimen and more description of the variation in Morrison allosaurids. Smith (2008) found no morphometric differences between maximus and fragilis in at least the humerus and femur.
References- Ray, 1941. Big for his day. Natural History. 48, 36-39.
Camp, Welles and Green, 1953. Bibliography of fossil vertebrates 1944-1948. Geological Society of America Memoir. 57, 465 pp.
Chure, 1995. A reassessment of the gigantic theropod Saurophagus maximus from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Oklahoma, USA. Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota. 103-106.
Smith, 1998. A morphometric analysis of Allosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(1), 126-142.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.

Allosaurus Marsh, 1877
pr= "Madsenius" Lambert, 1990
pr= "Wyomingraptor" Anonymous, 1997
Diagnosis- (modified from Chure, 2000) fenestrate dorsal wall of maxillary antrum (unknown in Saurophaganax); spindle-shaped foramen on lateral surface of sacral centrum 4 (unknown in Saurophaganax); obturator process with long anteriorly directed lamina that extends to level of puboischiadic contact (unknown in Saurophaganax).
(after Carrano et al., 2012) tall, transversely compressed lacrimal horn (unknown in Saurophaganax); reduced external mandibular fenestra (unknown in Saurophaganax); strongly downturned paraoccipital processes that terminate well ventral to basal tubera (unknown in Saurophaganax); antarticular bone in mandible (unknown in Saurophaganax); distal expansion of ischium suboval in lateral view (unknown in Saurophaganax).
Not Allosaurus- The AMNH online catalogue lists AMNH 3838 as Allosaurus? sp. based on several teeth from the Belly River Group of Alberta, Canada, but these are near certainly tyrannosaurid based on locaility. Similarly, the UCMP online catalogue lists UCMP 136555 and 136556 as Allosaurus based on two teeth from the Judith River Group of Montana, which are also presumably tyrannosaurid.
References- Marsh, 1877. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles from the Jurassic formation. American Journal of Science and Arts. 14, 514-516.
Chure, 2000. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Carrano, Benson and Sampson, 2012. The phylogeny of Tetanurae (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 10(2), 211-300.
A. fragilis Marsh, 1877
= Camptonotus amplus Marsh, 1879
pr= Labrosaurus ferox Marsh, 1884
= Camptosaurus amplus (Marsh, 1879) Marsh, 1885
= Labrosaurus fragilis (Marsh, 1877) Nopsca, 1901
= Antrodemus fragilis (Marsh, 1877) Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957
pr= Allosaurus "whitei" Pickering, 1995
= Allosaurus "jimmadseni" Chure, 2000a vide Glut, 2003
pr= Allosaurus "carnegeii" Levin, 2003
pr= "Madsenius trux" Bakker vide Williams, 2004 online
= Allosaurus europaeus Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006
= Allosaurus lucasi Dalman, 2014
= Allosaurus amplus (Marsh, 1879) Galton, Carpenter and Dalman, 2015
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US
(Dry Mesa Quarry, Marsh-Felch Quarry 1, Marsh-Felch Quarry 2, Wolf Creek Quarry)
Holotype
- (YPM 1930) incomplete lateral tooth (~55 mm), incomplete cervical or anterior dorsal centrum, incomplete ~fourth dorsal centrum (85 mm), incomplete fifth sacral centrum (105 mm), two dorsal rib fragments, humeral fragment, pedal phalanx III-1 (~109 mm)
Referred- (AMNH 5780) five teeth (Chure, 2001)
(BYU 725/?) jugal, humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/5097) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/5098) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/9249) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/5126) maxilla (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(BYU 725/10296) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/10602) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/15599) axis (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 725/17125) dentary (Therrien et al., 2005)
(BYU 725/17879) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(BYU 4878; = BYU 4878 of Smith et al., 1999) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 4891; = BYU 4981 of Chure, 2000a) pubes (Chure, 2000a)
(BYU 5099) humerus (Taylor, 1992)
(BYU 5125) lacrimal (Britt, 1991)
(BYU coll.) nearly 200 elements (Britt, 1991)
(BYU coll.) (at least 13 individuals) 988 elements including femora (~120-960 mm) (Dangerfield, Britt and Scheetz, 2006)
....(BYU coll.) skull, caudal vertebrae, scapulocoracoid and hindlimbs including femur (960 mm)
(DMNH 2734/HEC 647, 648) eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(DMNH coll.) (Lederer and Small, 1999)
(MWC 732.002.OO1/HEC 575) eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC coll.) ~222 teeth (5-23 mm), skeletal elements (Kirkland and Armstrong, 1992)
(UCM 54471/HEC 268) eggshell (Hirsch, 1994)
(USNM 4734; proposed neotype) (7.4 m, 1.01 tons) incomplete skull (682 mm), partial mandible, atlas (28 mm), axis (85 mm), third cervical vertebra (105 mm), third cervical rib (268 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (102 mm), fourth cervical rib, fifth cervical vertebra (109 mm), fifth cervical rib, sixth cervical vertebra (111 mm), sixth cervical rib, seventh cervical vertebra (115 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (115 mm), eighth cervical rib, ninth cervical vertebra (123 mm), ninth cervical rib, (dorsal series ~1107 mm) first dorsal vertebra (88 mm), second dorsal vertebra (77 mm), third dorsal vertebra (74 mm), fourth dorsal centrum (72 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (74 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (81 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (~81 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (85 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (94 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (93 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra (99 mm), thirteenth dorsal vertebra (106 mm), fourteen dorsal ribs, most gastralia, (sacrum 536 mm) first sacral vertebra (116 mm), second sacral vertebra (104 mm), third sacral vertebra (104 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (108 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (104 mm), thirty-three caudal vertebrae, six chevrons, scapulae, coracoids, furcula, humeri (310 mm), radii (222 mm), ulnae (263 mm), radiales, ulnare, distal carpals I, distal carpal II, metacarpal I (73 mm), phalanges I-1 (136,138 mm), manual unguals I (118, 120 mm), metacarpals II (125, 122 mm), phalanges II-1 (94, 94 mm), phalanx II-2 (102 mm), manual ungual II (95 mm), metacarpals III (105, 97 mm), phalanges III-1 (50, 42 mm), phalanges III-2 (41, 43 mm), phalanges III-3 (52, 55 mm), manual unguals III (61, 59 mm), ilia (672, 720 mm), pubes (680 mm), ischia (575 mm), femora (770 mm), tibiae (690 mm), fibulae (623 mm), astragali (132 mm wide), calcanea, distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I (85 mm), phalanx I-1 (70 mm), pedal ungual I (~70 mm), metatarsal II (270 mm), phalanx II-1 (120 mm), phalanx II-2 (80 mm), metatarsal III (327 mm), phalanx III-1 (110 mm), phalanx III-2 (~90 mm), phalanx III-3 (66 mm), metatarsal IV (275 mm), phalanx IV-1 (75 mm), phalanx IV-2 (50 mm), phalanx IV-3 (30 mm), phalanx IV-4 (29 mm) (Marsh, 1884; described by Gilmore, 1915, 1920)
?...(USNM 2315; holotype of Labrosaurus ferox) dentary (412 mm) (Marsh, 1884)
(USNM 7336) astragalus (208 mm wide, 172 mm high) (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8335) maxilla, teeth, dentary (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8423) maxillae, five dorsal centra, (sacrum 540 mm), first sacral vertebra (~90 mm), second sacral vertebra (99 mm), third sacral vertebra (104 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (120 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (114 mm), three caudal centra, humerus, manual bones, partial ilia, broken pubes, broken ischia, femora (805 mm), metatarsal II (320 mm), phalanx II-1 (122 mm), metatarsal III (353 mm), phalanx III-1 (116 mm), phalanx III-2 (94 mm), phalanx III-3 (74 mm), metatarsal IV (324 mm), phalanx IV-2 (72 mm), pedal ungual IV (~75 mm) (Gilmore, 1920)
(YPM 57589; holotype of Allosaurus lucasi) (large) incomplete premaxilla, premaxillary tooth, partial maxilla, quadratojugal, partial ?quadrate, braincase, dentary fragment, several lateral teeth, incomplete ~nineteenth caudal centrum, incomplete ~twenty-seventh caudal centrum, ilial fragment, two pubic fragments, distal ischium, proximal tibia, partial metatarsal I, metatarsal II (335 mm), phalanx II-1 (130 mm), phalanx II-2 (80 mm), incomplete metatarsal III, phalanx III-1 fragment, phalanx III-2 (80 mm), phalanx III-3, incomplete metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1 (80 mm), phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3 (60 mm), partial pedal ungual IV (Dalman et al., 2012; described in Dalman, 2014a)
?(YPM 57726; paratype of Allosaurus lucasi) ?dentary fragment, angular fragment (Dalman, 2014a)
ribs, eighteen caudal vertebrae, scapula, metatarsal (Holt, 1940)
fragmentary skeletons including teeth (Armstrong et al., 1987)
tooth (Bollan, 1991)
tooth (Fiorillo and May, 1996)
partial skeleton (Schumacher and Liggett, 2004)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Montana, US
(Rattlesnake Ridge Quarry)
(ANS 21123; "Urinator montanus") (~5.3 m) (mandible ~723 mm) partial dentaries, partial articular, fifteen teeth (20-31 mm), partial fourteenth dorsal centrum (80 mm), twenty-three dorsal rib fragments, incomplete first sacral vertebra (84 mm), fused second and third sacral centra, partial fifth sacral vertebra, partial proximal caudal centrum, partial scapulae (~460 mm), partial coracoids, humeri (one incomplete; 293 mm), radii (182, 185 mm), ulnae (218 mm), radiale, ulnare, distal carpal I, distal carpal II, metacarpals I, phalanges I-1, manual unguals I, metacarpals II, phalanges II-1, phalanges II-2, manual unguals II, metacarpals III, phalanges III-1, phalanges III-2, phalanges III-3, manual unguals III, ilial fragment, partial fused pubes (~550 mm), incomplete ischia (~500 mm), femur (742 mm), proximal tibia (~621 mm), fibulae (one incomplete, one proximal), partial astragalus, calcaneum, distal metatarsal III (Pirolli, 2004)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, New Mexico, US
(Boney Canyon Quarry, San Ysidro Camarasaur Quarry)
(NMMNH 26071) tooth (Rigby 1982; described by Lucas et al., 1996)
(NMMNH 26073) tooth (Rigby 1982; described by Lucas et al., 1996)
(NMMNH 26074) tooth (Rigby 1982; described by Lucas et al., 1996)
(NMMNH 26083) fourth sacral vertebra, fifth sacral vertebra, first caudal vertebra (~203 mm), second caudal vertebra (~178 mm), third caudal vertebra (140 mm), fourth caudal vertebra (140 mm), four chevrons, partial ilium, incomplete ischia, femora (one incomplete; ~1.1 m), tibia (903 mm), partial fibula, phalanx II-1 (160 mm), phalanx II-2 (122 mm), pedal ungual II, phalanx III-2 (~135 mm) (Williamson and Chure, 1996)
two vertebrae (Lucas and Hunt, 1985)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Oklahoma, US

(OMNH coll.) material (Langston, 1989)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, South Dakota, US
(Fuller's 351)
(SDSM coll.) femur (Bjork, 1983)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Utah, US
(Carnegie Quarry, Cleveland-Lloyd quarry, Green River quarry, Hinkle Site, Rainbow Park)
(11584/BYU VP13019/HEC 464, 488) egg (Hirsch, 1994)
(BMS E25840) (composite) skeleton including humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 571/8901; BYU 671/8901 of Eddy and Clarke, 2011; Hinkle specimen) (adult) incomplete skull (lacking dorsal snout), mandible, atlas, axis, partial scapula, coracoid, humerus (420 mm), pubis, femur, tibia, metatarsal II (Smith et al., 1999)
(BYU 2028) premaxilla, partial maxilla, nasal, dentary (Lisak, 1980)
(CEU 1719; Al) (8.5 m) partial skeleton including dorsal vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, coracoid, humeri, ulna, femur, incomplete metatarsal II, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, metatarsal IV (Smith et al., 1999)
(CM 3382) tooth (McIntosh, 1981)
?(CM 3383) vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 3387) teeth, fragments (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 10002) proximal tibia, proximal fibula (McIntosh, 1981)
?(CM 11843) (juvenile) skull, several vertebral centra, ribs, coracoid, other elements (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 11844; = CM 11868; material of Allosaurus "carnegeii") partial skull, mandible, incomplete skeleton lacking forelimbs and including femur (842.5 mm), tibia (724 mm) and metatarsal III (360 mm) (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21703) skull, presacral vertebrae, caudal vertebrae, ilium, ischium (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21705) caudal centrum (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21713) ischium, metatarsal, other material (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21726) femur (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21757) three caudal vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 21769) distal femur (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33901) several vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
?(CM 33903) gastralia (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33957) two caudal vertebrae (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 33965) two proximal caudal centra, three neural arches, four neural spines (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 37004) distal metatarsal (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 38341) caudal vertebra, ungual (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 38349) several incomplete metatarsals (McIntosh, 1981)
(CMN 38454) dentary, humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(DINO 2560, = UUVP 6000; probable intended holotype of "Madsenius trux") (7.9 m, 1.32 tons) complete skull (845 mm), nearly complete skeleton (lacking first caudal vertebra, chevrons, forearms, several pedal phalanges) including femora (880, 850 mm), tibiae (730, 745 mm), astragalus and metatarsals III (375, 372 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(LACM 46030) skeleton including partial skull, dentary, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal II, metatarsal III and metatarsal IV (Smith et al., 2005)
(MCZ 3897) premaxilla, maxilla, cervical vertebrae, dorsal ribs, ilium (398 mm), femur (437 mm), tibia (371 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(ROM 5091) (composite) specimen including maxilla, dentary, humerus, metacarpal I, metacarpal II, metacarpal III, manual ungual, metatarsals II, metatarsals III, metatarsals IV (Nicholls and Russell, 1985)
(UCMP 84804) ungual (UCMP online)
(UDSH C-LQ 004) distal caudal vertebra (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 066) rib (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 068) tibia (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 077) manual unguals (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 109) radius (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ 113) pubis (Reid, 1990)
(UDSH C-LQ coll.) 61 elements (Reid, 1990)
(UMNH 1251) premaxilla (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 5754) tooth (?x12.8x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 5812) tooth (22.5x11.5x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 5814) tooth (29.2x13.7x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 5837) tooth (32.9x15.3x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 5918) proximal pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5919) distal scapula (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5920) partial ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5921) fifth sacral rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5922) partial eighth or ninth cervical rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5923) incomplete fifth sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5924) sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5925) partial distal chevron (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 5926) mid chevron (145 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UMNH 6100) tooth (24.8x11.9x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6140) tooth (36x15x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6142) tooth (42.8x20.6x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6145) tooth (23x11.1x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6153) tooth (41.5x18.5x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6233) tooth (38.6x17x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6234) tooth (21.5x12.3x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6237) tooth (35.3x17.1x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 6242) tooth (41.5x19.6x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 7442) tooth (31.6x15.7x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 7445) tooth (35.1x18.9x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(UMNH 8358) posterior cervical vertebra (Evers, Rauhut, Milner, McFeeters and Allain, 2015)
(UMNH 8365) posterior cervical vertebra (Evers, Rauhut, Milner, McFeeters and Allain, 2015)
(UMNH 8488) posterior cervical vertebra (Evers, Rauhut, Milner, McFeeters and Allain, 2015)
(UMNH 8489) posterior cervical vertebra (Evers, Rauhut, Milner, McFeeters and Allain, 2015)
(UMNH 9211) maxilla (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 9218) maxilla (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 9273) maxilla (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 9275) maxilla (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 9365) dentary (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 9369) dentary (Smith et al., 2005)
(UMNH 10192) posterior cervical vertebra (Evers, Rauhut, Milner, McFeeters and Allain, 2015)
(UMNH 10781; = UUVP 3811) first caudal vertebra (115 mm) (Carpenter, Sanders, McWhinney and Wood, 2005)
(UUVP 3) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 10-245) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 30-16) femur (535 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-17) femur (605 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-35) femur (465 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-55) tibia (343 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-76) ulna (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 30-77) humerus (202 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-90) metatarsal III (300 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-293) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-296) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-714) tibia (500 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-723) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-724) femur (525 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-743) femur (535 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-752) femur (465 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-778) humerus (280 mm) (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 30-782) metatarsal III (318 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 30-783) metatarsal IV (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 33) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 40) basicranium, pedal phalanx III-1 (Madsen, 1976; Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 40-21) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-22) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-25) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-214) metatarsal III (333 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-216) metatarsal III (296 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-217) metatarsal III (285 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-219) metatarsal III (269 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-221) metatarsal III (247 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-222) metatarsal III (243 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-227) humerus (252 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-268) femur (535 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-297) tibia (612 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-298) tibia (525 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-301) tibia (552 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-304) tibia (552 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-306) tibia (525 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-308) tibia (540 mm), astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-331) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-453) fifth sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 40-553) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-586) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-587) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-601) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-603) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-604) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-722) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-729) humerus (240 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-768) tibia (475 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 71-1) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 71-3) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 71-151) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP 86) radius (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 139) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 142) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 154) tibia (410 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 169) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 177) two distal caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 181) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 200) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 249) tibia (542 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 273) humerus (290 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 294) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 387) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 454) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 492) femur (480 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 566) humerus (199 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 652) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 669) mid chevron (143 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 687) radius (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 699) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 702) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 718) femur (535 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 740) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 778) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 837) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 847) femur (450 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 856) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 870) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 871) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 915) distal chevron (69 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 919) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 1010) proximal caudal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 1046) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1075) metatarsal III (284 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1086) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1165) femur (865 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1169) humerus (379 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1233) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1334) humerus (334 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1364) femur (575 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1365) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1403) jugal (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1414) epipterygoid (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 1473) tibia (637 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1517) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1528) scapula (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1551) metatarsal III (367 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1582) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1622) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1657) pedal phalanx III-1 (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1685) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1743) metatarsal III (313 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1847) posterior dorsal rib (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1848) phalanx (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1849) three distal caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1850) caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1851) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1852) premaxilla (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1853) pedal ungual II (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1854) metacarpal (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1855) metacarpal (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1856-1858) bone (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 1862) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1863) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1865) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1866) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1869) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1872) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1873) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1875) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1876) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1878) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1879) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1880) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1881) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1883) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1884) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1886) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1887) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1889) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1890) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1892) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1893) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1894) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1895) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1896) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1897) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1898) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1900) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1901) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1903) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1904) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1905) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1906) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1907) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1908) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1909) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1910) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1927) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1934) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1936) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 1945) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1980) humerus (156 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1981) humerus (162 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1989) metatarsal III (228 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 1991) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2001) dentary (Madsen)
(UUVP 2067) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 2175) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2186) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2226) fifth sacral vertebra (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 2252) cervical rib (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 2280) femur (505 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2327) humerus (244 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2350) distal chevron (64 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 2456) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2545) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2549) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2550) mid chevron (107 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 2559) femur (435 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2567) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2600) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2753) dorsal rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 2758) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 2765) humerus (251 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2843) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2850) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 2887) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2903) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2923) metatarsal III (284 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 2939) pedal phalanx (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 2997) phalanx (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 3036) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3082) quadrate, braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 3133) seventh cervical rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 3164) femur (475 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3192) femur (545 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3203) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 3243) ischium (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 3249) tibia (543 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3279) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3287) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 3304) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 3312) humerus (183 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3342) humerus (255 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3385) femur ( mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3389) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3435) humerus (343 mm) (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 3529) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3587) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3607) humerus (386 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3630) metatarsal III (191 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3638) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3670) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3694) femur (905 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3724) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3733) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3753) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3758) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 3771) two mid caudal vertebrae, chevron (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3773) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 3810) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3811) dorsal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 3833) tibia (553 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3835) tibia (540 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3836) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3943) fifth sacral rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 3980) femur (630 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 3995) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4029) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4122) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4127) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4159) phalanx (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4201) bone (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4213) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4220) humerus (150 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4223) metatarsal III (345 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4233) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4320) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4385) metatarsal III (338 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4387) humerus (254 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4445) metatarsal III (292 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4493) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4556) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4596) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4674) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 4778) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4779) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4780) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4785) metatarsal III (336 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4792) humerus (264 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4813) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4877) metatarsal III (280 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4895) caudal vertebrae (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 4908) humerus (280 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 4946) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 4958) metatarsal III (298 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5079) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5141) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5160) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5186) mid chevron (175 mm) (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5198) lacrimal (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5237) metatarsal III (291 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5256) two caudal vertebrae, chevron (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5289) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5300) (female) tibia (622 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5301) tibia (567 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5302) femur (695 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5315) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5346) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5358) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5361) tibia (596 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5379) metatarsal III (257 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5386) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5391) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5410) fifth sacral rib (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5415) metatarsal III (285 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5420) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5423) humerus (205 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5427) premaxilla, maxilla, dentary, fifth sacral vertebra (Madsen, 1976; Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 5436) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5445) metatarsal III (310 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5472) humerus (351 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5490) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5496) humerus (276 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5499) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5501) humerus (295 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5566) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5577) humerus (333 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5579) metatarsal III (252 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5582) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5583) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5599) scapula (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 5626) chevron (Peterson, Isakson and Madsen, 1972)
(UUVP 5658) distal caudal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5659) distal caudal vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5660) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5661) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5669) pedal phalanx IV-2 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 5748) maxillae, pterygoid, dentary (Madsen, 1976; Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 5753) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5748) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5754) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5843) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5849) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5942) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5943) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5958) postorbital (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5961) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 5969) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 5983) metatarsal III (276 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5985) ilium, ischium, metatarsal III (350 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5988) tibia (577 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5990) tibia (546 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5991) femur (555 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5993) femur (800 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 5998) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6023) scapula, femur (245 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6061) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6062) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6063) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6100) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6101) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6102) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6103) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6132) partial furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6625) proximal caudal vertebra (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6737) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6738) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6740) premaxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6742) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 6788) pedal phalanx III-1 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 6912) basicranium (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 6979) pubis (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 7145) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 7163) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 10016) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 10093) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10111) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10136) cervical vertebra (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 10149) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10154) humerus (340 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10161) humerus (280 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10169) metatarsal III (365 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10173) jugal (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 10220) pedal phalanx II-1 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 10237) maxilla (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10248) tibia (695 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10249) astragalus (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10250) dentary (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 10908) pedal phalanx IV-1 (Hanna, 2002)
(UUVP 11497) scapula (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11498) scapula (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11499) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11500) ilium (Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996)
(UUVP 11690) furcula (Chure and Madsen, 1996)
(UUVP 16645) braincase (Eddy and Clarke, 2011)
(UUVP 40607) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 40609) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 40610) postorbital (Smith et al., 1999)
(UUVP 40-738) metatarsal III (343 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP 40-739) metatarsal III (298 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(UUVP A1-1) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP Q-6) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP Q-19) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP X31) (Molnar, 1991)
(UUVP coll.) rib (Hanna, 2002)
(YPM 4944) (composite) skeleton including premaxilla, humerus (335 mm), ulna, metacarpal I, metacarpal II, metacarpal III, ilium, pubis, femur (526 mm), tibia (450 mm), astragalus, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II and metatarsal III (238 mm) (Ostrom, 1969)
(YPM 54376) tooth (YPM online)
(YPM 55898) two fragmentary teeth (Marsh, 1871)
(YPM PU 14554; AMNH 14554 of Eddy and Clarke, 2011) skeleton including maxilla, lacrimal, nasal, squamosal, mandible, femora (780, 786 mm) (Witmer, 1997)
(YPM PU 14554 A) ilium (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 B) pubes (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 C) fibula (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 D) femora (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 E) tibia, fibula, astragalus, calcaneum (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 F) tibiae (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 G; = PU 11 and PU 12 of Smith et al., 1999?) dentaries (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 H; = PU 6 and PU 7 of Smith et al., 1999?) cranial elements (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 I; = PU 3, PU 4 and PU 7 of Smith et al., 1999?) forelimb elements (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 J) hindlimb elements (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 K) vertebrae, chevrons (YPM online)
(YPM PU 14554 L) ischium (YPM online)
tooth (Stokes, 1964)
teeth (Chure and Englemann, 1989)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Nail Quarry, Reed's Quarry 9, Reed’s Quarry 14, Quarry N, WDC DML quarry)
(AMNH 5759) teeth (AMNH online)
(CM 1254; = CM 1255 in part) premaxilla, two teeth, two sacral vertebrae, humerus, ischia, four metatarsals, several phalanges (McIntosh, 1981)
(KUVP 1392) centra, scapulae, coracoids, incomplete humerus, radius, manual ungual I, ilium, femur (Williston, 1901)
(TATE 542) (adult) tooth (36 mm) (Bakker, 1997)
(TATE 543) (adult) tooth (20 mm) (Bakker, 1997)
(TATE 544) (adult) tooth (9.9 mm) (Bakker, 1997)
(TATE 550) (juvenile) tooth (6.6 mm) (Bakker, 1997)
(TATE coll.; material of "Wyomingraptor") 138 juvenile to adult teeth, three adult individuals including distal caudal vertebrae, forelimb, pubes and ischia (Bakker, 1997)
(USNM 2323) eight cervical centra, eleven dorsal centra, two sacral centra, many cervical and dorsal neural processes, ribs, ilium, ischia (490 mm), femur (645 mm) (Hay, 1908)
(USNM 8302) manual ungual III (Gilmore, 1920)
(WDC DMJ-0026) (Wahl, 2006)
(YPM 1932) proximal caudal vertebra (Marsh, 1884)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Colorado, US

(LACM uncatalogued/HEC 629) eggshell (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.2/HEC 418) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.2/HEC 462) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.2/HEC 489) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.2/HEC 532) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.3/HEC 457) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
....(MWC 122.3.1/HEC 457; holotype of Prismatoolithus coloradensis) egg (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.6) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
(MWC 122.8) eggs, eggshells (Hirsch, 1994)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Montana, US
(Mother's Day quarry, O'Hair quarry, Upper Strickland Creek quarry)
(MOR 637) tibia (734 mm), partial pes of eight elements including metatarsal III (372 mm) (Carrano, 1998)
(MOR 790-8-3-96-142) tooth (MOR online)
specimen (Schimelfening, Woodruff and Norden, 2014)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, New Mexico, US
(Acoma quarry)
(NMMNH P-38975; private coll.) maxillary fragments, dentary fragments, teeth (Heckert et al., 2003)
caudal vertebra, partial manual phalanx III-1, ungual (Smith, 1961)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Utah, US
(DNM 116)
(DINO 11541; intended holotype of Allosaurus "jimmadseni") (5.6 m, 614 kg, subadult) right half of skull (630 mm), stapes, partial sclerotic ring, mandible, (presacral column 1.814 m) second through eleventh cervical vertebrae, sixth through eighth cervical ribs, first through twelfth dorsal vertebrae, second through twelfth dorsal ribs, eighteen rows of gastralia, sacrum (438 mm), firsth through eighth caudal vertebrae (722 mm), midcaudal vertebra, sixteen distal caudal vertebrae (991 mm), seventeen chevrons, scapulae, coracoids (133 mm), furcula, humeri, radius, ulna, carpus, manus, keratinous sheath of manual ungual I, ilia, pubes, ischia (454 mm), femora (~658 mm), tibiae, fibulae, astragalus, calcaneum, distal tarsals 3, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I, metatarsal II (182 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, metatarsal III (225 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, metatarsal IV (195 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV (Chure, 2000a)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Big Al Quarry, Bone Cabin Quarry, Dana Quarry, Howe Quarry, Lake’s Quarry 1A, Meilyn Quarry, Poison Creek (Flynn) Quarry-3)
(AMNH 257) femur (920 mm) (Carrano, 1998)
(AMNH 275) femur (910 mm) (Osborn, 1899)
(AMNH 281) femur (AMNH online)
(AMNH 287) fibula (AMNH online)
(AMNH 290) (~9.5 m) partial metacarpal I, femur (985 mm), tibia (810 mm), fibula (764 mm), astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (375 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (425 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV (360 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (Osborn, 1899)
(AMNH 324) tibia (698 mm), fibula (665 mm), metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, metatarsal II (315 mm), phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (352 mm), phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, metatarsal IV (330 mm), phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (Osborn, 1899)
(AMNH 393; lost) ten caudal vertebrae, chevron, fragments (AMNH online)
(AMNH 408) ulna, femora (778, 825 mm), tibiae (705, 705 mm), proximal fibula, metatarsal IV, two phalanges (Carrano, 1998)
(AMNH 468; lost) fifteen caudal vertebrae (AMNH online)
(AMNH 469; lost) twelve caudal vertebrae (AMNH online)
(AMNH 496) tibia (466 mm) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 507) premaxilla, maxilla, teeth (Chure, 2000a)
(AMNH 530) femur, tibia, fibula (AMNH online)
(AMNH 600) incomplete skull (810 mm) (Osborn, 1900)
(AMNH 622) five cervical fragments (AMNH online)
?(AMNH 623) including partial distal caudal vertebra (AMNH online)
?(AMNH 624) including manual phalanx I-1 (AMNH online)
(AMNH 666; intended holotype of Allosaurus "whitei") incomplete skull (885 mm), partial mandible, hyoid, axis, third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, sacrum, ilium, pubes, proximal ischia (Osborn, 1900)
(AMNH 680; = AMNH 630 of Carrano, 1998?) (9.7 m; 2.3 tons) fifth to seventh dorsal vertebrae, second to fourth caudal vertebrae, ~sixth caudal vertebra, ilium, pubes, ischia, femur (1.008 m), tibiae (856 mm), fibulae, astragali, calcaneum, metatarsus (IV 342 mm), pedal phalanges (Chure, 2000a)
(AMNH 839) lower limb element (AMNH online)
(AMNH 847) five or six incomplete caudal vertebrae (AMNH online)
(AMNH 851) mandible (Chure, 2000a)
(AMNH 865) teeth (AMNH online)
(AMNH 857) tibia (AMNH online)
(AMNH 858) teeth (AMNH online)
(AMNH 865) premaxilla (AMNH online)
(AMNH 960) premaxilla, maxilla, teeth (AMNH online)
(AMNH 6125) femur (868 mm), tibia (758 mm), fibula, metatarsals (III 355, IV 325 mm), two pedal phalanges, two pedal unguals (Carrano, 1998)
(AMNH 6128) seven phalanges (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 30798; Dracula) (6.4 m) skull, mandibles, incomplete skeleton missing some dorsal vertebrae and all caudal vertebrae (Galiano and Albersdorfer, 2010)
(AMNH coll.) twelve teeth (Brown, 1935)
(MOR 693; Big Al) (1.5 tons) skull, sclerotic ring, mandibles, cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, scapulae, humerus (318 mm), radii, ulnae (254 mm), manus including manual phalanx I-1 and metacarpal II (118 mm), ilia (640 mm), pubes, ischium, femora (742 mm), tibiae (665 mm), fibulae, astragalus, pes including pedal ungual II, metatarsal III (346 mm), pedal phalanx III-1, metatarsal IV (286 mm) and metatarsal V (Breithaupt, 1996)
(NAMAL coll.) (4 m; juvenile) (skull 360 mm) maxilla, prefrontal, postorbital, jugals, quadratojugals, squamosals, quadrates, vomer, palatine, pterygoids, partial braincase, dentaries, splenials, surangulars, prearticulars, articular, hyoids, cervical vertebrae 3-10, dorsal vertebrae 1-13, ribs, gastralia, sacrum, caudal vertebrae except some mid caudals, pectoral girdle, forelimbs, hindlimb, skin impression (300^2 mm) (Pinegar, Loewen, Cloward, Hunter and Weege, 2003)
(NAMAL coll.) (8.8 m; adult) material including pubis (Pinegar, Loewen, Cloward, Hunter and Weege, 2003)
(SCGM0177; Caesar) partial skeleton including incomplete skull and partial mandibles (Tucker, 2009)
(SMA 005/02; Big Al 2) (adult) almost complete skeleton (Evers et al., 2013)
about fifty-five teeth (Galiano and Albersdorfer, 2010)
(YPM 1879; holotype of Camptonotus amplus) distal tarsal III, distal tarsal IV, partial metatarsal I, phalanx I-1 (66 mm), metatarsal II (305 mm), phalanx II-1 (117 mm), phalanx II-2 (92 mm), pedal ungual II (103 mm), metatarsal III (345 mm), phalanx III-1 (124 mm), phalanx III-2 (87 mm), phalanx III-3 (60 mm), metatarsal IV (310 mm), phalanx IV-1 (84 mm), phalanx IV-2 (69 mm), phalanx IV-3 (44 mm), phalanx IV-4 (32 mm) (Marsh, 1879)
?...(YPM 1892) maxillary fragments, postorbital, partial quadrate (220 mm), incomplete supraoccipital, pterygoid fragment, jaw fragments, cranial fragments, eight teeth, partial posterior cervical or anterior dorsal vertebra, fused first and second sacral centra (Galton, Carpenter and Dalman, 2015)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Colorado, US

(AMNH 5778) tooth (AMNH online)
(CM 2045) femur (McIntosh, 1981)
(LACM 135661) tooth fragment (LACM online)
(USNM 8257) manual ungual II (Gilmore, 1920)
?(YPM 4845) sacrum (YPM online)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Montana, US

?(YPM 16975) three centra (Douglass, 1909)
tibia, fibula, three metatarsals, phalanx (Cooley and Schmidt, 1998)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, New Mexico, US
(Exter quarry)
material (Foster, 2003)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, South Dakota, US
(Wonderland Quarry)
teeth, distal metatarsal IV (Forster, 1996)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Utah, US
(Hanksville-Burpee quarry)
(BYU 9466) incomplete specimen including partial skull (Smith et al., 1999)
?(CM 21736) scapulocoracoid (McIntosh, 1981)
(DINO 3984) femur (605 mm), tibia (55 mm), metatarsal IV (254 mm) (Foster and Chure, 2006)
(DNM C4) femur (880 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(DNM D4) femur (905 mm) (Madsen, 1976)
(DNM 4741) ilium (Meyers and Hoops, 1993)
(DNM 4818) humerus (Meyers and Hoops, 1993)
(DNM 4822) (juvenile) ulna (Meyers and Hoops, 1993)
(LACM 154771) tooth (LACM online)
partial tibia (Gregory, 1938)
material (Mathews, Williams, Bonnan and Henderson, 2009)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, Wyoming, US
(Aurora Quarry 3 and 4, Cheryls' Blind, Little Houston Quarry, Reed's Quarry 12, Quarry R, Quarry B, Quarry C, Quarry D, Red Mountain, Westphal Quarry)
(AMNH 704) dorsal vertebrae, few ribs, sacrum, nine caudal vertebrae, pelvis (Chure, 2000a)
(AMNH 715) femur (AMNH online)
(AMNH 726) ischium (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 728) pubes (Chure, 2000a)
?(AMNH 736) proximal caudal centrum (Pickering, 1996)
?(AMNH 737) partial mid caudal vertebra (Pickering, 1996)
?(AMNH 780) mandible (AMNH online)
(AMNH 813) two anterior dorsal vertebrae, five posterior dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, sacrum, two proximal caudal vertebrae, ilium, pubes, ischium (Chure, Fiorillo and Jacobsen, 2000)
(AMNH 871) rib (AMNH online)
(AMNH 885) rib (AMNH online)
(AMNH 889) rib (AMNH online)
(AMNH 5750) teeth, three vertebrae, metacarpal, tibia (667 mm), fibula, ungual, fragments (Carrano, 1998)
(AMNH 5752; in part) (Pickering, 1996)
(AMNH 5753; =4753 of Glut, 1997) partial skull (maxilla, jugal, quadratojugal, quadrate, ectopterygoid, partial pterygoid, braincase), axis, third cervical vertebra, fourth cervical vertebra, fifth cervical vertebra, sixth cervical vertebra, seventh cervical vertebra, eighth cervical vertebra, ninth cervical vertebra, tenth cervical vertebra, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra, third dorsal vertebra, fourth dorsal vertebra, fifth dorsal vertebra, sixth dorsal vertebra, seventh dorsal vertebra, eighth dorsal vertebra, ninth dorsal vertebra, tenth dorsal vertebra, eleventh dorsal vertebra, twelfth dorsal vertebra, thirteenth dorsal vertebra, sacrum, mid caudal vertebra, chevron, scapula, coracoid, furcula, ilium, pubes, ischium, femur (Matthew 1908)
?(AMNH 30138) phalanx, fragment (AMNH online)
(CM 82) proximal caudal centrum (McIntosh, 1981)
(CM 36037) caudal vertebra (McIntosh, 1981)
(KU coll.) (juvenile) metatarsals (Bader, 2003)
(SDSM 25248) (adult) cranial elements including, premaxilla, maxilla/dentary fragment, jaw fragments, two teeth (Foster and Martin, 1994)
(SDSM 30510) (juvenile) partial basicranium, tooth, three cervical vertebrae, dorsal vertebra, several ribs, two sacral vertebrae, four caudal vertebrae, manual phalanx, manual ungual, ilia (200 mm), ischium, femur (274 mm), tibia (295 mm), metatarsal IV (148 mm), several pedal phalanges, pedal unguals (Foster and Chure, 2006)
?(SDSM coll.) several teeth (Foster and Martin, 1994)
(USNM 8367) atlas, axis (89 mm), third cervical vertebra (105 mm), fourth cervical vertebra (106 mm), fifth cervical vertebra (111 mm), sixth cervical vertebra (121 mm), seventh cervical vertebra (125 mm), eighth cervical vertebra (120 mm), ninth cervical vertebra (122 mm), tenth cervical vertebra, partial cervical ribs 2-10, first dorsal vertebra, second dorsal vertebra (89 mm), third dorsal vertebra (78 mm), fifth dorsal vertebra (85 mm), sixth dorsal vertebra (80 mm), seventh dorsal vertebra (88 mm), eighth dorsal vertebra (87 mm), ninth dorsal vertebra (94 mm), tenth dorsal vertebra (96 mm), eleventh dorsal vertebra (99 mm), twelfth dorsal vertebra, thirteenth dorsal vertebra (102 mm), eleven dorsal ribs, gastralia, fourth sacral vertebra (152 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (132 mm), first caudal vertebra (121 mm), first chevron, second caudal vertebra (123 mm), second chevron, third caudal vertebra (125 mm), third chevron, fourth caudal vertebra (120 mm), fourth chevron (252 mm), fifth caudal vertebra (118 mm), fifth chevron, sixth caudal vertebra (120 mm), seventh caudal vertebra (120 mm), seventh chevron, mid caudal vertebra (144 mm), partial ilium, pubes (740 mm), ischia (650 mm) (Gilmore, 1920)
(USNM 8405) (sacrum 575 mm), first sacral vertebra (120 mm), second sacral vertebra (96 mm), third sacral vertebra (107 mm), fourth sacral vertebra (125 mm), fifth sacral vertebra (118 mm), manual phalanges, metatarsal, pedal phalanges (Gilmore, 1920)
(UW coll.) several dorsal vertebrae, pelvic elements, hindlimb, partial pes (Hunter and Breithaupt, 2005)
(UW coll?) teeth (Levitt, 2007)
(WDC-DMP-02) partial skeleton including several cervical vertebrae, incomplete dorsal column, partial caudal series, appendicular elements including humerus (370 mm) (Birkemeier, 2011)
(WDC-TY A) (~8 m subadult) premaxilla, maxilla, dentary, dorsal vertebrae, caudal vertebra, scapulae, phalanx I-1, manual ungual I, fibula, phalanx II-1, pedal elements (Goodchild Drake, 2004)
(WDIS 011) skeleton including quadrate (Bakker, 2000)
(WDIS 091 or WDIS 911) partial quadrate (Bakker, 2000)
(WDIS 536) maxillary tooth (58 mm) (Bakker, 2000)
(YPM 1894) vertebra, humerus, pubes, femur, tibia (Ostrom, 1969)
(YPM 1895; lost?) pubis (YPM online)
(YPM 2792) tooth (YPM online)
(YPM 4679) two metatarsals (YPM online)
(YPM 4680) tooth (YPM online)
(YPM 4840) vertebrae, ilium (Ostrom and McIntosh, 1966)
(YPM 4841) dorsal centrum (YPM online)
(YPM 6222) pubis (YPM online)
(YPM 6223) pubis (Chure, 2000a)
(YPM 6224) pubis (Chure, 2000a)
(YPM 6225) ischium (YPM online)
(YPM 6226) (YPM online)
(YPM 40914; = YPM 1876) metacarpal (YPM online)
(YPM 46147) manual ungual (YPM online)
(YPM 46148) tooth (YPM online)
(YPM 46149) tooth (YPM online)
(YPM 54357) three lateral teeth (YPM online)
(YPM 54361) anterior tooth (YPM online)
(YPM 56468) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56469) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56470) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56471) phalanx (YPM online)
(YPM 56472) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56473) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56474) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56475) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56476) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56477) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56478) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56479) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56480) vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56481) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56482) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56483) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56484) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56485) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56486) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56487) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56488) partial distal caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56489) dorsal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56490) dorsal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56491) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56492) vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56493) vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56494) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56495) ungual (YPM online)
(YPM 56496) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56497) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 56498) caudal vertebra (YPM online)
(YPM 58258) (juvenile) proximal femur, proximal tibia (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58259) (juvenile) sixth dorsal centrum (60 mm) (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58260) (juvenile) partial lacrimal, two angular fragments, distal radius, distal fibula, six postcranial fragments, five fragments (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58261) partial ulna (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58273) distal caudal centrum (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58275) (juvenile) distal metatarsal III (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58276) (juvenile) incomplete manual phalanx III-1 (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58277) (juvenile) incomplete manual ungual III (Dalman, 2014b)
(YPM 58278) (juvenile) tooth, vertebra (YPM online)
incomplete skeleton including ilium (811 mm) and pubis (Chure and Fiorillo, 1997)
(embryos) bones including two premaxillae, eggshells, nest (Carrano, Mateus and Mitchell, 2013)
Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Morrison Formation, US

('BYU 5524'; Scheetz pers. comm. 2014 notes no BYU specimen corresponds to this) ischium (Perez-Moreno et al., 1999)
('CM 10936'; Peratherium specimen in CM online catalog) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(FMNH P25114) femur (882 mm) (Carrano, 1998)
(NMMNH 26086) tooth (43x21.3x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(NMMNH 26087) tooth (31.8x18.1x? mm) (Heckert et al., 2003)
(SMM 66-42-1) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UMEM coll. = 'UMP' coll.) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UNL 50038) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UNL 50039) humerus (Smith et al., 1999)
(UNL uncatalogued) dentary (Smith et al., 1999)
(WDIS coll.; Rip Van Al) specimen including two dorsal vertebrae (Rothschild and Tanke, 2005)
('YPM 1333'; Clidastes specimen in YPM online catalogue) premaxilla (Smith et al., 2005)
('YPM 6293'; Orthacanthus specimen in YPM online catalogue) (Chure, 2000a)
incomplete postcranial skeleton (Paton, 1975)
numerous specimens from numerous localities (quarry list in Turner and Peterson, 1999)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Porto Novo Member of Lourinha Formation, Portugal

Holotype- (ML 415; holotype of Allosaurus europaeus) posterior skull, sclerotic ring, posterior mandible, fourth to sixth cervical vertebrae, fourth to sixth cervical ribs (Mateus et al., 2006)
Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic
Camadas de Alcobaca Formation, Portugal

(IPFUB Gui Th 4) (juvenile) maxilla (23 mm) (Rauhut and Fechner, 2005)
(MNHNUL/AND.001) (~6.5 m) partial frontal, partial quadrate, teeth, ~eleventh or twelfth dorsal centrum, ~thirteenth or fourteenth dorsal vertebra, two mid dorsal ribs, gastralial fragments, first sacral centrum fused to partial second sacral centrum, incomplete ~fourth caudal vertebra, partial mid caudal vertebra, five distal caudal vertebrae, chevrons, ilial fragment, pubes (one incomplete), incomplete ischium (~410 mm), incomplete femora, tibiae (one incomplete), fibulae, astragalus, calcaneum, metatarsal II, metatarsal III, metatarsal IV, pedal phalanges, pedal unguals (Perez-Moreno et al., 1999)
?....(MNHNUL/AND coll.) nasal fragment, lacrimals, quadratojugal, quadrate, frontal, braincase, dentary, posterior mandible, cervical vertebrae, cervical ribs, dorsal vertebrae, dorsal ribs, gastralia, caudal vertebrae, chevrons, coracoid, manual phalanges, ilium, pedal phalanges (Malafaia et al., 2010)
(MNHNUL/AND coll.) ilium (Malafaia et al., 2010)
Tithonian, Late Jurassic
Freixial Formation, Portugal

(ALT-SHN.0019) seventeen caudal vertebrae, two caudal centra, seventeen chevrons, calcaneum, distal tarsal IV, metatarsal I, phalanx I-1, pedal ungual I, distal metatarsal II, phalanx II-1, phalanx II-2, pedal ungual II, partial metatarsal III, phalanx III-1, phalanx III-2, phalanx III-3, pedal ungual III, incomplete metatarsal IV, phalanx IV-1, phalanx IV-2, phalanx IV-3, phalanx IV-4, pedal ungual IV, metatarsal V (Malafaia et al., 2009)
Comments- Note that most of the above material has not been described, and much is probably not distinguishable from Saurophaganax based on what little we know of the latter genus. Indeed, as Allosaurus is the most common Morrison theropod, it is likely material is often ascribed to it without good reason, so some specimens may belong to Ceratosaurus, Marshosaurus, Torvosaurus, Stokesosaurus, etc.. There is abundant material from numerous quarries, not all of which are guaranteed to be listed above, though all states and members are covered. For details on these, see Turner and Patterson (1999) and Foster (2003).
The types- The holotype was discovered in 1877, and is from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member (Felch Quarry 1) of the Morrison Formation in Colorado. It consists merely of an incomplete tooth, incomplete cervical or anterior dorsal centrum, two post-cervical centra (posterior dorsal and proximal caudal in Marsh 1877; posterior dorsal and posterior sacral in Gilmore, 1920; dorsal and posterior dorsal in Chure, 2000; caudals in Loewen and Chure, 2010), two rib fragments, a humeral fragment and pedal phalanx III-1. Marsh diagnosed this by amphicoelous (postcervical) centra transversely and ventrally reduced in size in the middle and slender "feet bones" (pedal phalanx III-1). These characters are plesiomorphic for theropods. Although partially figured by Gilmore, Madsen (1976) and Glut (1997), the material has only been described by Chure. Prior authors have viewed the holotype in different ways- Gilmore felt it was "hardly more diagnostic" than Antrodemus, Madsen thought the humerus was specifically diagnostic, and Chure admitted it could not be distinguished from "jimmadseni" but depended on his topotype. The tooth, unprepared presacral centrum, rib fragments and pedal phalanx cannot be identified past at least Carnosauria based on published information. One incomplete dorsal centrum resembles the fourth dorsal (fifth in Madsen, 1976) most based on the centrum elongation and shallow ventral concavity, though its broad ventral surface is first found on dorsal six of DINO 11541. It can be distinguished from carcharodontosaurids based on the lack of pleurocoels and from metriacanthosaurids based on its greater width. If this is a fourth dorsal, its lack of pleurocoels would also distinguish it from Saurophaganax, which seems to have them extend through dorsal five. The longer centrum seems to be a fifth sacral based on its width (minimum width 79% of length), in agreement with Gilmore's identification as a posterior sacral but contrasting with Chure's identification as a posterior dorsal. It is broader than metriacanthosaurids and Neovenator, and lacks pleurocoels present in Acrocanthosaurus. Chure states Allosaurus has shallow central fossae in its sacrals (visible in USNM 4734- Gilmore, 1920) while Saurophaganax lacks them in sacral five, and these are present in the Allosaurus holotype. Note that while Loewen and Chure (2010) have most recently identified both of these centra as caudals without comment, Allosaurus has a narrow ventral margin on its caudal vertebrae whereas these are broad. Madsen concentrated on the humeral fragment to support the holotype's diagnostic nature, referencing the position of the m. humeroralialis scar and nutrient foramen. Unfortunately, carnosaur humeri are seldomly preserved and often not illustrated or described in detail. Acrocanthosaurus and Mapusaurus both have a more posteriorly placed scar and the former at least has a more anteriorly placed foramen. Acrocanthosaurus also has a more abruptly expanded deltopectoral crest. However, Saurophaganax has an anteriorly placed scar as in the holotype, though the position of its foramen cannot be determined from publications. This suggests the humerus is at best identifiable to Allosauridae based on published information, and not a particular genus. This review suggests that the holotype might be referred to Allosaurus based on the lack of pleurocoels in dorsal ~4 and the the lateral fossae in sacral 5, but these are based on estimated positions in the holotype's and Saurophaganax's material.
Madsen (1976) tried to designate DINO 2560 (then UUVP 6000) as a neotype, but this is not allowed when the holotype is still extant (ICZN Article 75.3.4). The nearly complete specimen USNM 4734 was designated the topotype by Chure (2000) as it comes from the same quarry as the holotype, but the ICZN does not recognize topotypes as official and the publication is a thesis. Most recently, Paul and Carpenter (2010) have petitioned the ICZN to make USNM 4734 the neotype of Allosaurus fragilis, which was still being voted on as of 1-2-2015. There are a number of issues with the petition however. Paul and Carpenter fail to list a centrum, humeral fragment and the rib fragments (noted by Demirjian, 2010 and Loewen and Chure, 2010) and continue to identify both free centra as dorsals, which is seemingly incorrect for at least one as noted above. They simply state the holotype elements "are inadequate to diagnose a genus, much less a species, YPM 1930 can only be identified to family level" without any detailed examination or reference to such an examination. As detailed above, the holotype may share characters with Allosaurus to the exclusion of Saurophaganax (the only other commonly accepted allosaurid genus), a genus the authors never mention. Paul and Carpenter declare numerous species to be indeterminate without providing evidence, some of which are also said to be probably distinct from the holotype's species, also without evidence. Regardless of these deficiencies and the lack of any detailed published comparative study of the holotype, USNM 4734 will probably be declared the neotype based on past ICZN action.
USNM 4734 was discovered in 1883 from the locality of the holotype. This was first reported and illustrated by Marsh in 1884 (Gilmore, 1920), contrary to Chure (2000) stating parts were illustrated by Marsh in 1879, prior to its actual discovery (the pubis illustrated by Marsh 1879 is the YPM specimen shown in Gilmore's plate 11, while the ischium's identity remains uncertain). Only the pelvis and hindlimb are from USNM 4734 however, the humerus being YPM 1894, and the rest based on Ceratosaurus and Megalosaurus. Gilmore (1915) described the actual pectoral girdle and forelimb of USNM 4734 and later (1920) described much of the rest of the specimen, though note most of the axial description is of USNM 8367. Chure notes the right dentary on the specimen is actually from USNM 8335 while Loewen and Chure (2010) state the premaxilla is too large and thus from another individual. The latter authors also provide a materials list for USNM 4734, though because Gilmore says not all carpals were found for each side and leaves some measurements unknown for the left manus, their description of the hindlimbs as complete may be incorrect. USNM 4734 can be assigned to Allosaurus instead of Saurophaganax based on having atlantal prezygapophyses, a semilunate atlantal intercentrum, dorsal pleurocoels limited to the first two centra, posterior dorsals lacking a paraspinal lamina, and the tibia having an astragalar buttress and a poorly projected medial malleolus.
Short-snouted fragilis vs. long-snouted atrox?- It has become common (e.g. Paul, 1988; Britt, 1991) to recognize two types of normal-sized Morrison Allosaurus- one with a shorter snout and pointed lacrimal horns (usually called A. fragilis) and another with a long snout and rounded lacrimal horns (usually called A. atrox, and sometimes separated as Creosaurus). While A. fragilis sensu stricto has been based mainly on the proposed A. fragilis neotype, the 'A. atrox' morphology has not been based on the Creosaurus atrox holotype but instead probably originates in Osborn (1903) describing the elongate skulls AMNH 600 and 666 as Creosaurus. Thus, actual discussion of the Creosaurus holotype is separated in its own entry here, while the long-snouted morphotype will be called 'A. atrox' for this section. Regarding the supposedly shorter skull of A. fragilis, Smith (1998) first noted USNM 4734 "does not have any significant differences from the articulated crania from the other sites at the individual element level ... Given the results presented here, a case could be made that this specimen might be more correctly reconstructed as having a longer snout." Such a case was made by Chure (2000), who notes that is the only short skull known, and it was found disarticulated. When it was reconstructed by Gilmore (1920), he had to "comprimise in regard to the exact articulation of the elements". There are large plaster filled gaps in the specimen, the contact between the maxilla, jugal and lacrimal is missing, the dentary is from another specimen, the other mandible is plaster, the palate is fragmentary, and the postorbital regions are distorted judging by their asymmetry. Chure notes the maxilla is reconstructed too far posteriorly, as the lacrimal articulation of the dorsal process is projecting into the antorbital fenestra. The angle between the maxillary body and its dorsal process is similar to other Allosaurus specimens, which wouldn't make sense if the snout were shorter. Similarily, the angle between the anterior and ventral lacrimal processes is in the middle of the range Allosaurus exhibits, with Cleveland-Lloyd 'A.atrox' specimens showing marked variation. The nasal of USNM 4734 is broken and the anterior part moved dorsally and rotated ventrally. The lacrimal horn shape shows many intermediates between tall and triangular (USNM 4734) and low and rounded (DINO 2650), and there is an example of a triangular lacrimal on a long skull (MOR 693). Contra Paul, triangular lacrimals are known from the Cleveland-Lloyd quarry (eg. UUVP 40-581). Though Paul claimed 'A. atrox' has a more robust neck, there is no difference when cervical width/length ratios are compared. Similarily, though Paul claimed 'A. atrox' has a more robust forelimb, no difference was noted when humeral circumference and length were quantitatively compared (circumference/length ratio .45 in A. fragilis, .36-.49 in 'A. atrox'). Finally, both supposed species are found in the same quarry, as evidenced by AMNH 600 (referred to A. fragilis by Paul) and AMNH 666 (which he referred to 'A. atrox'). This is contrary to the stratigraphic distinction supported by Bakker and others. In conclusion, there is no evidence for the fragilis/atrox dichotomy advocated by Paul and Bakker, though it continues to be used in taxonomic arguments (e.g. Paul and Carpenter, 2010).
Two species after all? Loewen (2004), Brandau et al. (2008) and Loewen (2009) performed a "morphometric analysis of over 570 bivariate comparisons for 1,300 specimens" of skulls and hindlimbs and found two Allosaurus species, stratigraphically separated. The Brushy Basin species would be Allosaurus fragilis, and its presumed synonyms Creosaurus atrox, Allosaurus ferox, Allosaurus lucaris, Epanterias amplexus and Labrosaurus ferox. From the Salt Wash Member, we have the names Camptonotus amplus, Allosaurus "whitei" and Allosaurus "jimmadseni". They found the posterior skull "exhibits extreme positive allometry, substantially increasing in transverse breadth and ventrally displacing the jaw joint relative to the tooth row" in A. fragilis, but not in the other species. Loewen (2004) also stated the ventral jugal margin is strongly sigmoidal in A. fragilis, mirroring Chure's "jimmadseni" distinction, and that the nasals were different. However, none of these studies have published data, making evaluation impossible. Note too that a division between members isn't the same as Chure's hypothesis of "jimmadseni", as e.g. AMNH 600 and MOR 693 are from the Salt Wash Member but have sigmoidal ventral jugal margins. Indeed, Chure considered AMNH 507, 600, 666, 680, 851 and 6125 to be A. fragilis despite being from the Salt Wash Member. Pending publication of supporting data, all Allosaurus are identified as A. fragilis here. However, the Material list breaks down specimens by member so that identification will be easier if stratigraphy proves to be correlated with taxonomy.
Camptonotus amplus- Camptonotus amplus (Marsh, 1879) was described based on an incomplete pes found in 1879. The diagnosis compared to the type species C. dispar described in the same paper was a combination of characters found in both species (reduced pedal digit I; fifth pedal digit absent), those typical of Allosaurus (larger than Camptosaurus; metatarsal I not contacting tarsus), one innaccurate character (pedal ungual II proportionately longer- actually 34% of mtII length in amplus vs. 44% in dispar), one based on an incorrectly assigned element (pedal ungual I more compressed transversely), and two that are too vague to evaluate (first metatarsal "much curved"; pedal digits III and IV "large and powerful"). Marsh (1885) later renamed the genus Camptosaurus, as Camptonotus was preoccupied by gryllacridid cricket named by Uhler in 1864. Gilmore (1909) briefly commented on C. amplus in his Camptosaurus monograph and provisionally referred the skull YPM 1887 to it because of its large size (later named Theiophytalia kerri in 2007). Based on a personal communication with Bakker, Galton and Powell (1980) referred amplus to Allosaurus fragilis. This has been reconfirmed by McDonald (2011), and the specimen finally received a modern description in Galton et al. (2015). These authors confirmed the material belongs to Allosauroidea, except for the pedal ungual I which they identify as sauropod and probably Camarasaurus, recataloging it as YPM 58526. Additionally, they note Allosaurus specimen YPM 1892 was found in the same quarry and is of comparable size, so probably belongs to the same individual. Galton et al. provisionally create the new combination Allosaurus? amplus, stating it differs from A. fragilis and Saurophaganax in having a longer non-tapered portion of metatarsal I, and differs from A. fragilis but not Saurophaganax in having a broad distal metatarsal IV articular surface. They also posit the rather complete yet mostly undescribed specimen AMNH 5753 may be referrable to A? amplus as it shares the broad distal metatarsal IV.
The condition of metatarsal I is different from Madsen's composite UUVP figure, DINO 11541 and 22 UMNH specimens mentioned by Galton et al., but basically every well described Allosaurus specimen differs from others in some characters. Similarly, narrow distal metatarsal IVs are reported in Madsen's composite and DINO 11541, while wide ones are present in AMNH 5753, USNM 57589, YPM 1879 and Saurophaganax specimen OMNH 1936. There is thus no established pattern that width relates to taxonomy, as no two specimens referred to the same species based on other characters have been shown to have the same condition. There are also examples from each member of the Morrison with each morphology, so the distinction is not stratigraphic and is here viewed as individual variation. However, the distal end of metatarsal IV is triangular in amplus as in Allosaurus (including USNM 57589; AMNH 5753's are unfigured) but not the only figured specimen of Saurophaganax. Because of this, amplus is here synonymized with Allosaurus fragilis pending defensible subdivision of that species.
Interestingly, amplus is the only definitely officially named allosaurid from the Salt Wash Member, so if Loewen's studies are correct that each member has its own species, the lower member's species would be Allosaurus amplus instead of A. jimmadseni (unless amplus is specifically indeterminate). Thus it seems important to compare to "jimmadseni"'s pes. Unfortunately, the only pedal character identified by Chure (2000) as differing between "jimmadseni" and fragilis is "proximal corner of pedal phalanx III-2 projected further laterally", which doesn't seem to actually be true. There are also no characters preserved and published in YPM 1892 which can be compared to Chure's distinctions between A. fragilis and "jimmadseni." The metatarsi are quite dissimilar as far as allosaurid specimens go, with amplus far more robust, having a distolateral slope to the proximal surface vs. a distomedial one, distally more bowed metatarsals III and IV which narrow and close the space between them, a less ginglymoid metatarsal III, proximally broader metatarsal II, posteriorly convex proximal outline of metatarsal IV, shallower posterior intercondylar groove of metatarsal II, side edges of metatarsal III's distal outline that are slanted ventromedially instead of ventrolaterally, a more convex dorsolateral edge to the distal outline of metatarsal IV, plus the metatarsal I and distal metatarsal IV distinctions noted by Galton et al.. Some of these differences may be ontogenetic as amplus is 53% larger than "jimmadseni", but these specimens do nothing to support Salt Wash allosaurids being a coherent species separate from A. fragilis.
Labrosaurus ferox- Labrosaurus ferox (Marsh, 1884) is based on a pathological dentary (USNM 2315) from the Kimmeridgian Brushy Basin Member (Felch Quarry 1) of the Morrison Formation in Colorado, found in 1883. It was initially diagnosed by the toothless anterior (pathological), ventrally extended posterior edge (also found in A. fragilis- MOR 693 in Chure, 2000) and triangular teeth (unpreserved except for replacement tips). Hay (1908) recognized that Labrosaurus ferox could not be compared to the genus' type species lucaris, though he viewed the pathological morphology as natural so separated it from Allosaurus. Gilmore (1920) was the first to suggest pathology for the concave edentulous section of the dentary. Bakker (2000) suggested the dentary "fits well into the anterior end of the post-dentary bones of USNM 4734 and certainly belongs to the same species if not the same individual", and is from the same quarry. As such, this could be an objective junior synonym of Allosaurus fragilis if USNM 4734 becomes the neotype, though it it incomparable to Saurophaganax.
"Madsenius"- This name was orginally reported in a children's book (Lambert, 1990) as "a proposed new allosaurid theropod to be formally named and described." Olshevsky (1991) listed it under Allosauridae as a taxon "to be described from the Morrison Formation by R. T. Bakker; based on distinctive skull material and other remains previously referred to Allosaurus and Creosaurus." Williams (online, 2004) mentioned the combination "Madsenius trux", leading Olshevsky (online, 2004) to say "trux" "was to have been Bakker's original type species epithet for the as-yet-unpublished genus Madsenius. According to him, it fits Madsen as appropriately as it fits Madsenius" [etymology- Latin trux means "fierce, rough, savage, wild"].
While nothing else unique has been written regarding "Madsenius", I believe clues in the literature point to its probable identity. Since at least 1988, Bakker has proposed two kinds of Morrison allosaur, the classic short-snouted fragilis vs. long-snouted 'atrox' dichotomy. Bakker (2000) cited the latter species as "The creosaur-type allosaurid (unfortunately, the type of Creosaurus MARSH is, by itself, indeterminate): Dinosaur National Monument skeleton University of Utah UUVP 6000 ..." as opposed to "True Allosaurus MARSH: specimens from the type locality of Allosaurus fragilis MARSH - the skeleton United States National Museum USNM 4734 ..." In that paper, he stated "These two types of skulls are easy to tell apart from the quadrate, lower temporal fenestra, and depth of the mandible; however, I find it impossible to separate the two taxa from isolated snout bones or post-crania." This matches the "distinctive skull material" noted by Olshevsky, and the 'long-snouted' skulls have been referred to both Allosaurus and Creosaurus by different workers, also matching Olshevsky's comment. Furthermore, UUVP 6000 (later recatalogued as DINO 2560) was the basis of Madsen's (1976) classic Allosaurus monograph and "Madsenius" clearly refers to Madsen. Putting everything together, I think it's apparent "Madsenius" was to be Bakker's name for creosaur-type allosaurs when he realized the Creosaurus holotype couldn't be assigned to either variety. UUVP 6000 was probably supposed to be the holotype.
If we accept this explanation, Bakker's characters supporting "Madsenius" can be evaluated. Bakker states the ventral quadrate angles posteriorly in DINO 2560, forming a deeply concave posterior edge to the element unlike A. fragilis AMNH 600. The posterior angle formed by the dorsal and ventral quadrate edges is 24 degrees in AMNH 600 compared to 30 degrees in the UUVP coll. quadrate illustrated by Madsen and 27 degrees in his cranial reconstruction of DINO 2560. Bakker's DINO 2560 illustration shows an unprecedented angle of 52 degrees. Angles in other specimens are 18 (AMNH 30798), ~44 (BYU 571/8901), 30 (DINO 11541), 43 (MOR 693), 15 (SMA 005/02) and 34 degrees (USNM 4734). For the laterotemporal fenestra, Bakker states the restriction caused by the ventral squamosal process is greater in A. fragilis AMNH 600 (least anteroposterior length of fenestra 15% of dorsoventral height) than DINO 2560 (26% in Madsen's reconstruction, 28% in Bakker's). Measurements in other specimens are ~25% (AMNH 666), 31% (AMNH 30798), <24% (BYU 571/8901), 38% (DINO 11541), 20% (ML 415), 40% (MOR 693), 38% (SMA 005/02) and 16% (USNM 4734). Mandibular depth is 19% of length in Bakker's DINO 2560 (similar to 19% in Madsen's reconstruction) and 24% in his A. fragilis illustration, though the latter is a composite between AMNH 666 (which has only a partial surangular) and 5753 (which does not include mandibular elements). So even this minor 5% difference cannot be determined. Values in other specimens are ~19% (AMNH 30798), ~21% (BYU 571/8901), 17% (DINO 11541), 19% (MOR 693) and 20% (SMA 005/02). The above comparison suggests mandibular depth is fairly constant in known allosaurids, though quadrate angling and laterotemporal fenestra proportions vary widely. Yet importantly, the latter conditions both exhibit intermediates instead of two distinct clusters, and do not covary- AMNH 30798 and SMA 00/02 have low quadrate angles but wide laterotemporal fenestrae, while USNM 4734 has a high angle but restricted fenestra. Note neither of these conditions vary with stratigraphy either, and indeed the A. fragilis types and DINO 2560 are both from the Brushy Basin Member. Nor does it vary geographically, with Wyoming specimens encompassing almost the entirity of the variation. Based on this study then, "Madsenius" can be considered a synonym of Allosaurus fragilis and another example of Bakker's notorious splitting.
Allosaurus "whitei"- This is based on a skull with hyoid, presacral column, sacrum and pelvis (AMNH 666) discovered in 1901, first mentioned in Osborn (1903) as Creosaurus. These were recovered from the Kimmeridgian Salt Wash Member (Bone Cabin Quarry) of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming. It was diagnosed by the same characters Paul (1988) used to distinguish 'A. atrox' (low, long skull; bluntly rounded lacrimal horn; slender limb elements), so is invalid for the same reasons. Only the skull has ever been illustrated (in Osborn, 1906 and 1912) and was only briefly described. Pickering initially listed the name in a 1995 publication which he agrees only established a nomen nudum, and later used it in more detail in a 1996 publication which he sees as valid. Chure (2000a) rejected the validity of the name, as Pickering didn't follow ICZN Article 8 Recommendation 8A (Authors have a responsibility to ensure that new scientific names, nomenclatural acts, and information likely to affect nomenclature are made widely known), Article 8.1.1 (it must be issued for the purpose of providing a public and permanent scientific record), Article 8.1.2 (it must be obtainable, when first issued, free of charge or by purchase), and a recommendation from the third edition of the ICZN absent in the fourth edition (conventional printing being preferred, though the new Article 8.4.1 expressly allows Pickering's method). As recommendations are optional, only Articles 8.1.1 and 8.1.2 are necessary for the name to be valid. Article 8.1.1 is about intent, and while Chure is correct that Pickering's 1996 work is far from a traditional scientific work, his online remarks indicate new names there were meant to be public, permanent and scientifically valid. Regarding Article 8.1.2, Chure states it was sent to "some unknown number of personal friends of the author", but Pickering (online, 2002) stated "well over 150 copies of my publication were distributed as a supplement to Mike Fredericks' PREHISTORIC TIMES in 1996". The former would not qualify under 8.1.2, though the latter would. As for AMNH 666, the meager published information is insufficient to assign it to Allosaurus or Saurophaganax, though several characters of the latter genus (postorbital lacks rugosity; mid cervicals with nearly vertical postzygapophyses; mid dorsals have well developed infraprezygapophyseal lamina; mid dorsals with vertically oriented infrapostzygapophyseal lamina; pleurocoels present through fifth dorsal centrum) could be checked in the material. Pickering also designated AMNH 5753 as a topotype, which the ICZN does not recognize but is considered a specimen from the same locality as the holotype. This is the mounted specimen standing low over Apatosaurus vertebrae (AMNH 222), but Chure notes it was from Aurora Quarry 3 so cannot be a topotype. Pickering (1996) also lists AMNH 275, 290, 324, 496, 600, 680, 704, 726, 728, 736, 737, 851, 5752, 6125, 6128, MCZ 3897 and possibly DINO 2560 as referred specimens. If "whitei" turns out to be a valid name, and amplus is specifically indeterminate, and Loewen's studies are correct that Salt Wash specimens aren't A. fragilis, "whitei" would be the next valid name for that species. However, note AMNH 704, 726, 728, 736, 737, 5752 and 5753 are from quarries that have not been placed in the Salt Wash Member with certainty, and that MCZ 3897 and DINO 2560 are from the Brushy Basin Member so would be A. fragilis on stratigraphic grounds.
"Wyomingraptor"- This name was published in the column 'Dr. Bob's Dinofacts' in response to a question from a reader (Anonymous, 1997). The author (possibly Bakker himself) suggested it for a Tate Geological Museum specimen currently labeled Allosaurus. From 1997 until 2006, the Tate Museum included a "Wyomingraptor" section in its exhibits page, stating Bakker has proposed that name for a new genus of allosaur found at Como Bluff including a photographed forelimb. In the PaleoWorld episode "Killer Raptors" (episode 7 of season 4) aired in 1997, Bakker claims the only theropod preserved in Nail Quarry is "Wyomingraptor" (though note this is untrue, as the "Brontoraptor" material was also found there). The material (three adults and numerous juvenile to adult teeth) was mentioned in Bakker (1997) where he simply calls them Allosaurus. Hartman (DML, 2000) wrote that Bakker has been "attempting to erect a new genus of allosaur, which he dubs "Wyomingraptor." He has been using this name for some time, but recently has found a specimen he thinks is different enough from the type(s) to warrant generic distinction." Given Bakker's notoriety as a splitter, the Nail specimens are likely to just be Allosaurus fragilis in any case. The photographed forelimb is similar to A. fragilis USNM 4734 except for being more robust, at least in metacarpal I, phalanx II-1 and II-2. Indeed, the robust first metacarpal is similar Torvosaurus, though the elongate phalanx I-1, radius and ulna are not. The forelimb is stated to be a cast, so it's not certain how much is based on real Nail fossils. It's possible some elements were scaled incorrectly from other specimens or are complete fabrications. It's also possible some material such as metacarpal I actually comes from the "Brontoraptor" individuals and that the forelimb is a chimaera. Further evaluation awaits description of the Nail material, which has yet to be distinguished from Saurophaganax either.
A. "jimmadseni"- DINO 11541 was discovered in 1990 in the Kimmeridgian Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in Utah (quarry DNM 116). Chure (2000a) described it in his thesis as a new species, Allosaurus "jimmadseni". Names in theses aren't usually listed in this website, and this one is only because it was later published by Glut (2003). Glut's work includes a caveat to the effect that it is not available to establish new taxonomy however, so the name remains unofficial. Several more recent sources have used A. "jimmadseni" as valid (Snively et al., 2004; Malafaia et al., 2007; Rauhut, 2011; Dalman, 2014a and b). None of these establish the species however, as they lack an explicit statement of novelty (ICZN Article 16.1).
Chure diagnosed "jimmadseni" based on- row of maxillary neurovascular foramina below antorbital fenestra in antorbital fossa (also in AMNH 600); axial intercentrum rotated dorsally (also in BYU 571/8901); axial intercentrum with flared rim; accessory ossifications on the anterior and posterior edges of proximal caudal neural spines (these are merely the interspinous ligaments, which are partially ossified in A. fragilis as well); anteroposteriorly elongate obturator notch in pubis delimited by triangular processes (a further ossification of cartilaginous areas in most Allosaurus, with e.g. the distal triangular process present but more poorly developed in the YPM specimen in plate 11 of Gilmore 1920; Chure notes AMNH 813 seems to have an enclosed obturator foramen, which would be another example); proximal corner of pedal phalanx III-2 projected further laterally (untrue compared to AMNH 324 and Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll.). He also lists numerous supposed differences from A. fragilis- premaxillary narial fossa less well defined (?also in BYU 571/8901 and BYU 2028); large foramen between lacrimal and jugal (not maxilla, contra Chure's text) at posteroventral corner of antorbital fossa; elongate medial fenestra to maxillary antrum; rounded lacrimal horn (distortion?; also in ML 415 and UUVP 167); lateral pneumatic recess of lacrimal absent (untrue); lateral vertical ridge on lacrimal horn; lacrimal horn not rugose; straight ventral margin of jugal (also in BYU 571/8901); parietals fused posteriorly (note the figure shows a complete suture); parietals taller than wide in posterior view (untrue); basipterygoid recess well marked and invasive (variable in fragilis- Chure and Madsen, 1996a); myohyloid foramen nearly enclosed ventrally (variable in fragilis- Madsen, 1976); teardrop-shaped internal mandibular foramen in anteroventral prearticular; nineteen dentary teeth (18 in BYU 2028 and SMA 005/02); odontoid process of axis tall and narrow in anterior view (seemingly untrue based on plate); third cervical neural spine slanted posteriorly (also in AMNH 5753, MOR 693 and USNM 8367; not known to be absent in any fragilis specimen); fourth through sixth neural spines more anteroposteriorly elongate (untrue of c6 in USNM 8367); cervical pleurocoels change in size throughout the vertebral column (also in USNM 8367 and Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll.; not known to be absent in any fragilis specimen); fifth and sixth cervical epipophyses transversely compressed (true in c4, 5 and 7 in Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll.); presacral eleven with parapophysis fully on centrum (also in AMNH 5753 and Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll.; in USNM 4734 "the upper edge reaches the neurocentral suture", so this is not much different); hypapophysis on presacral 11 instead of 12 (also in AMNH 5753; on both in Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll. and USNM 4734); less pronounced notch between acromion and anterior coracoid edge (barely apparent if at all compared to USNM 4734, untrue compared to MOR 693); distal scapula not as expanded dorsally (barely apparent if at all compared to Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll.); coracoid extremely thin anteriorly; more gracile ulna (limb gracility shows variation in A. fragilis- e.g. humerus in Smith's 1998 study showing diameters varying from ~40 to ~90 mm in ~330 mm long elements); longer olecranon process (only appears to be present due to the bone's gracility); olecranon process transversely thin; medial ulnar cotyle lower (I'm unsure what direction this refers to); straighter ulnar shaft (also in SMA 005/02); long axes of proximal and distal ulnar ends offset by ~45 degrees instead of ~90; vertical ridge above acetabulum (also in atrox and SMA 005/02); pubic boot less tall and massive (also in MOR 693); medial surface of low femoral head angled strongly ventrally (while initially appearing odd, this is due to a combination of flatter medial and dorsal edges and an actual angular difference in 20 degrees from e.g. the YPM specimen in plate 11 of Gilmore 1920 or Madsen's 1976 UUVP coll.; similar variation in angle and medial flatness are seen in Megalosaurus bucklandii); strongly developed mediodistal crest on femur (actually similar to some A. fragilis such as UNMH VP 7884 and 12231); less curved cnemial crest (untrue of the right tibia). Unfortunately, the degree of variation in other Allosaurus specimens is almost never mentioned by Chure and very few specimens have decently described or illustrated. Several of the characters seem to be the consequence of greater ossification and others are pneumatic features that are often variable within species. Most are comparable to intraspecific variation in other theropods, with the best candidate for a valid character being the reportedly Megaraptor-like narrow olecranon. If even minor characters were found to vary e.g. geographically or stratigraphically they could be taxonomically significant, but no examples above conform to this (e.g. the Salt Wash SMA 005/02 shares a straighter ulnar shaft with "jimmadseni", but the Salt Wash MOR 693 does not; MOR 693 shares the shallow pubic boot with "jimmadseni", but SMA 005/02 does not). Given the above, A. fragilis and "jimmadseni" are considered synonymous here.
Pinegar et al. (2003) mentioned two NAMAL specimens they referred to A. "jimmadseni". Skin impressions found with the juvenile consist of 2-3mm wide scales.
Galiano and Albersdorfer (2010) reported an additional A. "jimmadseni" specimen from the Dana Quarry of Wyoming. Nicknamed Dracula, it is reportedly ~70% complete, missing the tail and some dorsals. The AMNH has acquired it as AMNH 30798.
Allosaurus "carnegeii"- This name was used in a caption for the cover (on page 3) of the June 2003 issue of Discover Magazine, advertising a story inside by Levin and Gurney. As Levin near certainly didn't write the cover description, the usually cited authorship of "Levin, 2003" is probably in error and should be attributed to Discover editors. It is no doubt a typo, perhaps confusing the name with Diplodocus carnegii. The cover photo is the skull and anterior cervicals of the mounted CM 11844 from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Carnegie Quarry) of Utah. As detailed by McIntosh (1981), this specimen was discovered in 1913 and the skull on the mount is a cast of DINO 2560 (then UUVP 6000). As the first two cervicals seem to be at least partially sculpted (e.g. elongate axial neural spine), there may not even be any real material in the cover photo. The name is certainly a nomen nudum, lacking description (ICZN Article 13.1.1), an explicit statement of novelty (ICZN 16.1) and explicit designation of a type (ICZN 16.4.1). CM 11844 has never been described, but the mount has no paraspinal lamina, relatively unexpanded chevrons and a highly divergent metatarsal IV, so is Allosaurus instead of Saurophaganax if these areas were based on real material. If Loewen's studies are correct, stratigraphy would place CM 11844 and DINO 2560 as A. fragilis.
Allosaurus europaeus- Perez-Moreno et al. (1999) described MNHNUL/AND.001 as Allosaurus fragilis, that was later described in detail by Malafaia et al. (2007). Ortega et al. (2009) and Malafaia et al. (2010) mentioned and illustrated more material later excavated from this specimen, and the latter notes a larger ilium is preserved as well. Mateus et al. (2006) briefly described a partial skull and cervicals as the new species Allosaurus europaeus, referring MNHNUL/AND.001 based on geography although the specimens lack overlapping elements. Malafaia et al. felt the supposed autapomorphies for A. europaeus were primitive for allosauroids and/or subject to individual variation in A. fragilis. My comparison confirms this. A. europaeus was diagnosed by Mateus et al. based on the following characters- maxilla forked posteriorly (also in AMNH 600); truncated ventroposterior process of maxilla (also in AMNH 600); nasal with two pneumatic foramina (anterior foramen twice the size of the posterior) (posterior actually larger); rugose dorsal rim of nasal (also in many specimens such as BYU 2028 and SMA 005/02); lacrimal horn narrow in lateral view; lateral lamina of lacrimal subtle (also in AMNH 600); jugal participation in antorbital fenestra (also in some A. fragilis- Bakker pers. comm. to Carpenter and Currie, 2000; argued by Malafaia et al., 2009 and 2010 to be a misinterpretation based on a crack instead of a suture); posteroventral projection of jugal more than twice posterodorsal projection (also in BYU 571/8901, DINO 11541 and USNM 4734); ventral tip of postorbital reaches lower rim of orbit (untrue, but similar extent in BYU 571/8901); anterior tip of quadratojugal anterior to laterotemporal fenestra (also in AMNH 600); squamosal contacts quadratojugal in sigmoidal suture; squamosal projects ventrally into laterotemporal fenestra (true in all Allosaurus); occipital condyle above squamosal-quadratojugal contact (also in USNM 4734); palatine contacts pterygoid dorsoposteriorly (true generally in Allosaurus- e.g. DINO 11541 and MOR 693); large anterior surangular foramen (also in AMNH 4734). Only the narrow lacrimal horn, larger posterior nasal foramen, and sigmoidal squamosal-quadratojugal suture differ from the sample of A. fragilis skulls checked. Of these, the A. fragilis lacrimal horn morphology is highly variable and wide horns are represented in Portuguese material (Malafaia et al., 2010). The size and number of nasal foramina varies between specimens (e.g. three foramina in BYU 2028), as common for pneumatic features. The squamosal-quadratojugal shape is also variable in A. fragilis, so that it is unsurprising the sigmoid line of A. europaeus' type is different from the other mutually different examples. While one might expect European and American Allosaurus to be specifically distinct, this is so far unjustified by morphology. I follow Malafaia et al. in synonymizing the species.
Allosaurus lucasi- The material of this species (YPM 57589) was discovered in 1953 in the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Colorado (McElmo Canyon). This was first mentioned in an SVP abstract (Dalman et al., 2012) as a taxon "distinct from Allosaurus and Saurophaganax", though phylogenetic analysis placed it "within Allosauroidea, more closely related to Allosaurus, Fukuiraptor and Neovenator." Dalman (2014) described it as a new species of Allosaurus, A. lucasi. Contrary to Dalman et al., no CT scans or braincase are mentioned in the description. Dalman also correctly identifies five premaxillary teeth, whereas Dalman et al. state only four are present. Unfortunately, YPM 57589 is highly fragmentary and only partially prepared, and Dalman's description is poorly written and full of errors.
The first supposedly distinctive character (also mentioned by Dalman et al.) is a short premaxilla, which Dalman claims is equal in length and height. However figure 2A clearly shows the length/height ratio to be ~144%, which is actually more elongate than A. fragilis exemplar USNM 4734 (138%), let alone specimens with even shorter premaxillae (e.g. 85% in AMNH 600). Both Dalman and Dalman et al. cite a short and deep maxilla as a second derived character, but only the anterior third is preserved so this is completely unknowable. Note that the labeled margin of the antorbital fossa (eaof in figure 4A) is actually above the base of the ascending process and that little if any of the preserved section was under the actual antorbital fossa. Thus when Dalman later states the antorbital fossa was not as ventrally extensive in lucasi, he's confusing the portion below the ascending process for the portion under the fossa, and the structure is the same as in other Allosaurus specimens. Dalman lists reduced anterior and posterior quadratojugal processes as diagnostic, but the posterior process is equally short in e.g. AMNH 600, while the anterior process is broken. The bone is only visible as two sagittal cross sections still encased in matrix, and one block of matrix is missing the ventral edge present on the other block so that the anterior process appears shallow and more tapered (figure 6D, also used in plate 1), but the actual bone is deeper and less tapered (rqjr in figure 6C) so comparable to A. fragilis. Dalman et al. similarly list a robust quadratojugal as diagnostic, but this is an illusion caused by the incorrectly restored anterior process. Dalman states the ventral margins of the anterior and posterior quadratojugal processes are on a straight line, but the angle is 27 degrees, similar to the 32 degree measure in USNM 4734 and more than in DINO 11541 (as Dalman himself notes later in the text). Dalman's last diagnostic character is the supposedly posteriorly placed lateral tibial condyle, but this is very similar to USNM 4734 (posterior edge of condyle at 87% of anteroposterior length in lucasi vs. 86% in fragilis).
Dalman also lists numerous features supposedly different from A. fragilis in the text. The anterior edge of the premaxilla is said to be at a slightly lower angle compared to the ventral margin, but both edges are incompletely preserved and the angle varies widely in other Allosaurus specimens. The premaxillae are claimed to make a narrower symphysis by five degrees, but this is not only within likely individual and/or taphonomic variation, it's probably not possible to measure that exactly in lucasi due to the medial side being "cemented to the conglomeratic matrix." Dalman claims the subnarial foramen is absent, but given the "extensive weathering of the lateral surface" which has removed traces of neurovascular foramina, the subnarial foramen is probably unpreserved as well. The dorsal quadratojugal process is said to be at a right angle to the ventral process unlike a supposed 75 degree angle in A. fragilis, but some fragilis specimens have a right angle too (e.g. DINO 2560). The same thing can be said of the supposedly straight instead of anteriorly bent dorsal quadratojugal process, with the added issue that the dorsal portion is broken off. The posterior end of the quadrate is said to be slender and that of fragilis robust, but so much of the bone has been eroded away (dorsal third, mandibular condyles, anterior portion of pterygoid wing) that the posterior width is about the only dimension measurable, so can't be related to any other dimension to measure robusticity. What little is preserved of the bone shows no differences from fragilis. The pubic peduncle is said to end "with a small protruding structure, which extends throughout the entire anteroposterior length of the bone", supposedly unlike A. fragilis, atrox or "jimmadseni", but what this refers to isn't obvious from the figure. Dalman says the pubic peduncle is shorter and more robust than A. fragilis, but as only the distal end is preserved, this is impossible to evaluate. Similarly, the supposedly more shallow posterior concavity is impossible to know since the proximal half of the concavity is unpreserved., and the supposedly more gracile and much thinner pubic shaft may not be true since only two short shaft fragments are preserved. Metatarsal I is claimed to be more massive, but its width is ~53% of metatarsal II's based on figure 18, compared to 53% in USNM 4734. Dalman is correct in stating metatarsal IV is less distally divergent than some A. fragilis (e.g. AMNH 324, DINO 11541), though this is similar to Saurophaganax and is also found in some fragilis specimens (e.g. MOR 693).
Metatarsal IV's triangular distal end identifies this as Allosaurus instead of Saurophaganax, and Dalman's characters are inaccurate, unknowable or fall within the range of variation of A. fragilis. Thus it is referred to that species here. If Loewen's studies are correct, YPM 57589's high stratigraphic position would keep it referred to A. fragilis.
Dalman also refers YPM 57726, supposed dentary and splenial fragments, to A. lucasi because they and the holotype "were found in close proximity to each other and exhibit similar morphology." The supposed dentary fragment is from a smaller individual than the holotype, not stated to share any characters with it to the exclusion of other Allosaurus, and can't even be placed compared to the holotype dentary fragment given the poor figures and description. Although stated to be from the "distal" (= anterior?) portion of the dentary, there is no obvious Meckelian groove and the tall and convex supposed splenial articular surface is unlike any theropod. Dalman states the splenial articular surface "is much deeper than it is in other species of Allosaurus", but as no theropods have a similar structure there is more likely misidentification to blame. The supposed splenial fragment has too little anterior taper to be an Allosaurus splenial, though it does match the middle section of an angular well. There's nothing suggesting these fragments come from the same individual or even from Allosaurus.
Other specimens- The holotype of "Laelaps" trihedrodon (Cope, 1877) is lost and was never illustrated and only briefly described, so cannot be assigned to Allosaurus or another genus (Chure, 2000a; published as Chure, 2001).
The holotype of Hypsirophus discurus (Cope, 1878) does not contain Allosaurus elements, contra Glut (1997) and Paul and Carpenter (2010) (Chure, 2000a).
Lisak (1980) described a snout in his thesis as Allosaurus cf. fragilis that was redescribed by Smith and Lisak (2001). BYU 2028 is from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Utah. The authors state it is unlike most Allosaurus specimens in having a premaxilla which is taller than long, more extensive pneumatization around the antorbital fossa, convex ventral maxillary edge, better developed nasal ridge, and more concave ventral dentary edge. They considered these features to be individual variation within A. fragilis.
MOR 693 was discovered in 1991 in the Kimmeridgian Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation inWyoming (Laws, 1993). The specimen is very complete and has been nicknamed Big Al. Big Al has been the focus of pathological research (e.g. Laws, 1996; Breithaupt, 2001; Hanna, 2002), though no description of its morphology has been published. Another rather complete specimen (SMA 005/02) was discovered by the same team in the same quarry in 1996, and is nicknamed Big Al 2. It has been mentioned only briefly in the literature, though Evers et al. (2013) did comment on its pathologies in an abstract.
NMMNH P-26083 (Williamson and Chure, 1996) is a large specimen from the Tithonian Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in New Mexico. Williamson and Chure merely referred it to Allosauridae, not a particular genus. It is assigned to Allosaurus instead of Saurophaganax because the femoral shaft is straight in anterior view, the tibial facet for the astragalar ascending process is well marked and the medial malleolus of the tibia is poorly expanded. P-26083's large size invites comparison to Epanterias, but no preserved elements are shared with the holotype. The strongly curved cnemial crest, twisted tibial shaft, and flattened medial surface of the medial tibial condyle are supposedly unique characters. However, twisted tibial shafts are almost universal among theropods and A. fragilis exemplar USNM 4734 also has a concave medial edge of its medial condyle. As the tibia is not figured in proximal view, the cnemial crest's curvature cannot be evaluated.
Smith et al. (1999) described BYU 571/8901 from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Utah as an example of Allosaurus fragilis. It has a perhaps pathologically fused ectopterygoid and pterygoid (right side only), fused atlantal elements, less distinct coracoid tuber, and humerus with greater torsion than other A. fragilis. Bybee and Smith (1999) note it has an ossified sphenethmoid, very thin parasphenoid rostrum, posteriorly oriented basisphenoid recess, coalesced cranial nerve foramina at base of occipital condyle, and more horizontally oriented paroccipital processes than most A. fragilis as well.
The referred eggs are Prismatoolithus coloradensis (Hirsch, 1994), as shown by Carrano et al. (2013).
References- Marsh, 1871. On the geology of the Eastern Uintah Mountains. American Journal of Science, series 3. 1(3), 191-198.
Marsh, 1877. Notice of new dinosaurian reptiles from the Jurassic formation. American Journal of Science and Arts. 14, 514-516.
Cope, 1878. A new opisthocoelous dinosaur. American Naturalist. 12(6), 406.
Marsh, 1879. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part I. American Journal of Science, series 3. 16, 411-416.
Marsh, 1884. Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VIII. The order Theropoda. The American Journal of Science, series 3. 27, 329-340.
Marsh, 1885. Names of extinct reptiles. American Journal of Science. 29, 169.
Osborn, 1899. Fore and hind limbs of carnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs from the Jurassic of Wyoming. Dinosaur contributions, no. 3. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 13, 161-172.
Osborn, 1900. Reconsideration of the evidence for a common dinosaur-avian stem in the Permian. American Naturalist. 34(406), 777-799.
Nopcsa, 1901. Synopsis und Abstammung der Dinosaurier. Foldtani kozlony. 31, 247-288.
Williston, 1901. The dinosaurian genus Creosaurus, Marsh. American Journal of Science, series 4. 11, 111-114.
Osborn, 1903. The skull of Creosaurus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 19(31), 697-701.
Osborn, 1906. Tyrannosaurus, Upper Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaur (second communication). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 22(16), 281-296.
Hay, 1908. On certain genera and species of carnivorous dinosaurs, with special reference to Ceratosaurus nasicornis Marsh. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 35, 351-366.
Matthew, 1908. Allosaurus, a carnivorous dinosaur and its prey. American Museum Journal. 8(1), 3-5.
Douglass, 1909. A geological reconnaissance in North Dakota, Montana and Idaho. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. 5, 211-288.
Gilmore, 1909. Osteology of the Jurassic reptile Camptosaurus, with a revision of the species of the genus, and descriptions of two new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 36, 197-332.
Osborn, 1912. Crania of Tyrannosaurus and Allosaurus. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. New Series 1(1), 1-30.
Gilmore, 1915. On the fore limb of Allosaurus fragilis. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 49, 501-513.
Gilmore, 1920. Osteology of the carnivorous Dinosauria in the United States National Museum, with special reference to the genera Antrodemus (Allosaurus) and Ceratosaurus. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. 110, 1-154.
Brown, 1935. Sinclair Dinosaur Expedition 1934. Natural History. 36, 3-15.
Gregory, 1938. The San Juan County, a geographic and geologic reconnaissance of Southeastern Utah. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper. 188, 59.
Holt, 1940. The dinosaurs of the Grand River Valley. Journal of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science. 2(6), 28-29.
Lapparent and Zbyszewski, 1957. Les dinosauriens du Portugal. Mémoires du Service géologique du Portugal. 2, 1-63.
Smith, 1961. Triassic and Jurassic rocks of the Albuquerque area. New Mexico Geological Society,. Guidebook 12, 121-128.
Stokes, 1964. Fossilized stomach contents of a sauropod dinosaur. Science. 143, 576-577.
Ostrom, 1969. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 30, 165 pp.
Petersen, Isakson and Madsen, 1972. Preliminary studies of paleopathologies in the Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur collection. Utah Academy of Science Proceedings. 49, 45-47.
Paton, 1975. A catalogue of fossil vertebrates in the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, part four/Amphibia & Reptilia. Royal Scottish Museum, Information Series in Geology. 3, 1-33.
Madsen, 1976. Allosaurus fragilis: A revised osteology. Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulletin. 109, 1-163.
Galton and Powell, 1980. The ornithischian dinosaur Camptosaurus prestwichii from the Upper Jurassic of England. Palaeontology. 23, 411-443.
Lisak, 1980. Allosaurus fragilis from the Late Jurassic of Southeastern Utah. Masters Thesis. Brigham Young University. 194 pp.
McIntosh, 1981. Annotated catalogue of the dinosaurs (Reptilia, Archosauria) in the collections of Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 18, 1-67.
Bjork, 1983. The dinosaurs of South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Sciences. 62, 209-210.
Lucas and Hunt, 1985. Dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in New Mexico. New Mexico Journal of Science. 25, 1-12.
Nicholls and Russell, 1985. Structure and function of the pectoral girdle and forelimb of Struthiomimus altus (Theropoda: Ornithomimidae). Palaeontology. 28, 643-677.
Armstrong, Averett, Averett, McReynolds and Wolny, 1987. Mid-Mesozoic paleontology of the Rabbit Valley area, Western Colorado. Dinosaur Triangle Paleontological Field Trip, 1987. 37-43.
Paul, 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. Simon & Schuster, New York. 464 pp.
Chure and Englemann, 1989. The fauna of the Morrison Formation in Dinosaur National Monument. Mesozoic/Cenozoic Vertebrate Paleontology: Classic Localities, Contemporary Approaches. Field Trip Guidebook T322, 8-14.
Langston, 1989. A history of vertebrate paleontology at the University of Oklahoma: Norman, Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma, Museum of Paleontology, unpublished document. 92 pp, Appendix IV 24 pp.
Lambert, 1990. The Dinosaur Data Book. New York, Avon Books. 320 pp.
Molnar, Kurzanov and Dong, 1990. Carnosauria. In Weishampel, Osmólska and Dodson (eds.). The Dinosauria. University of California Press, Berkeley. 169-209.
Reid, 1990. Zonal "growth rings" in dinosaurs. Modern Geology. 15, 19-48.
Bollan, 1991. The Bollan Stegosaurus. Guidebook for Dinosaur Quarries and Tracksites Tour, Western Colorado and Eastern Utah. Grand Junction Geological Society Grand Junction, Colorado. 53-54.
Britt, 1991. Theropods of Dry Mesa Quarry (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic), Colorado, with emphasis on the osteology of Torvosaurus tanneri. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 37, 1-72.
Molnar, 1991. The cranial morphology of Tyrannosaurus rex. Palaeontographica Abteilung A. 217(4-6), 137-176.
Olshevsky, 1991. A revision of the parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, excluding the advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings. 2, 196 pp.
Kirkland and Armstrong, 1992. Taphonomy of the Mygatt-Moore (M&M) Quarry, Middle Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) Western Colorado. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 12(3), 37A.
Taylor, 1992. Doctors try to diagnose dinosaur cancer. Toronto Globe and Mail. 1-5-1992, A1-A2.
Hunt and Lucas, 1993. Jurassic vertebrates of New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 2, 71-75.
Laws, 1993. A specimen of Allosaurus fragilis from Big Horn County, Wyoming exhibiting several pathologies. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 13(3), 46A.
Meyers and Hoops, 1993. What kind of bone is that? Dinosaur Nature Association. 12.
Foster and Martin, 1994. Late Jurassic dinosaur localities in the Morrison Formation of Northeastern Wyoming. Forty-Fourth Annual Field Conference- 1994. Wyoming Geological Association Guidebook. 115-126.
Hirsch, 1994. Upper Jurassic eggshells from the Western Interior of North America. In Carpenter, Hirsch and Horner (eds.). Dinosaur Eggs and Babies. Cambridge University Press, New York. 137-150.
Kirkland and Carpenter, 1994. North America's first pre-Cretaceous ankylosaur (Dinosauria) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Western Colorado. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 40, 25-42.
Laws, 1995. Description and analysis of the pathologies of a sub-adult Allosaurus fragilis (MOR 693). Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Rocky Mountain Section, 47th annual meeting. 27(4), 43.
Pickering, 1995. The Lost World: One more piece of the puzzle. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 4 pp.
Breithaupt, 1996. The discovery of a nearly complete Allosaurus from the Jurassic Morrison Formation, Eastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Forty-Seventh Annual Field Conference Guidebook, Wyoming Geological Association, Casper. 309-313.
Bybee, 1996. Histological bone structure differences in various sized elements from the Late Jurassic dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis of central Utah. PhD thesis. Brigham Young University. 200 pp.
Chure and Madsen, 1996a. Variation in aspects of the tympanic pneumatic system in a population of Allosaurus fragilis from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(1), 63-66.
Chure and Madsen, 1996b. The furcula in allosaurid theropods and its implication for determining bird origins. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(3), 28A.
Chure and Madsen, 1996c. On the presence of furculae in some non-maniraptoran theropods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(3), 573-577.
Fiorillo and May, 1996. Preliminary report on the taphonomy and depositional setting of a new dinosaur locality in the Morrison Formation (Brushy Basin Member) of Curecanti National Recreation Area, Colorado. In Morales (ed.). The Continental Jurassic. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60, 555-561.
Forster, 1996. Fossil vertebrate localities in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Western South Dakota. In Morales (ed.). The Continental Jurassic. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60, 255-263.
Kolb, Davis and Gillette, 1996. The theropod dinosaur Allosaurus Marsh from the upper part of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) near Green River, Utah. in Huffman, Lund and Godwin (eds.). Geology and Resources of the Paradox Basin. Utah Geological Association Guidebook 25, 339-349.
Laws, 1996. Paleopathological analysis of a sub-adult Allosaurus fragilis (MOR 693) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation with multiple injuries and infections. MS thesis. Montana State University. 61 pp.
Lucas, Williamson, Estep, Hunt and Anderson, 1996. Jurassic fossil vertebrates from New Mexico. In Morales (ed.). The Continental Jurassic. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60, 235-241.
Pickering, 1996. King Kong. Unauthorized Jewish fractals in philopatry. A Fractal Scaling in Dinosaurology Project. 5-13.
Williamson and Chure, 1996. A large allosaurid from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation (Brushy Basin Member), West-Central New Mexico. Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60, 73-79.
Anonymous, 1997. Dr. Bob's dinofacts. Tate Geological Times. 5(2), 3.
Bakker, 1997. Raptor family values: Allosaur parents brought great carcasses into their lair to feed their young. In Wolberg, Sump and Rosenberg (eds). Dinofest International, Proceedings of a Symposium, Academy of Natural Sciences. 51-63.
Chure and Fiorillo, 1997. One Big Al to go and hold the mayo: Evidence of scavenging of a specimen of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic) of Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(3), 38A.
Glut, 1997. Dinosaurs - The Encyclopedia. McFarland Press, Jefferson, NC. 1076 pp.
Witmer, 1997. The evolution of the antorbital cavity of archosaurs: A study in soft-tissue reconstruction in the fossil record with an analysis of the function of pneumaticity. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Memior 3. 17(1), 1-73.
Carrano, 1998. The evolution of dinosaur locomotion: Functional morphology, biomechanics, and modern analogs. PhD Thesis, The University of Chicago. 424 pp.
Cooley and Schmitt, 1998. An anastomosed fluvial system in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Southwest Montana. In Carpenter, Chure and Kirkland (eds.). The Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation: An Interdisciplinary Study. Modern Geology. 22(1), 171-208.
Breithaupt, Chure and Southwell, 1999. AMNH 5753: The world’s first free-standing theropod skeleton. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(3), 33A.
Bybee and Smith, 1999. A large, unusual allosaurid skull from Eastern Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(3), 35A.
Chure, 1999. The wrist of Allosaurus and the evolution of the semilunate carpal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(3), 38A.
Lederer and Small, 1999. An Upper Jurassic microvertebrate site, Moffat County, Colorado. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18(3), 58A.
Ostrom and McIntosh, 1999. Marsh's Dinosaurs: The Collections from Como Bluff. Yale University Press, New Haven. 388 pp.
Perez-Moreno, Chure, Pires, Marques da Silva, Dos Santos, Dantas, Povoas, Cachão, Sanz and Galopin de Cavalho, 1999. On the presence of Allosaurus fragilis (Theropoda: Carnosauria) in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal: First evidence of an intercontinental species. Journal of the Geological Society of London. 59, 449-452.
Smith, Richmond and Bybee, 1999. Morphological variation in a large specimen of Allosaurus fragilis, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Eastern Utah. In Gillette (ed.). Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1, 135-141.
Turner and Peterson, 1999. Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A.. In Gillette (ed.). Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication. 99-1, 77-114.
Wagner and Gauthier, 1999. 1,2,3 = 2,3,4: A solution to the problem of the homology of the digits in the avian hand. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96, 5111-5116.
Bakker, 2000. Brontosaur killers: Late Jurassic allosaurids as sabre-tooth cat analogues. Gaia. 15, 145-158.
Chure, 2000a. A new species of Allosaurus from the Morrison Formation of Dinosaur National Monument (Utah-Colorado) and a revision of the theropod family Allosauridae. PhD thesis. Columbia University. 964 pp.
Chure, 2000b. New data on the gastral basket of Allosaurus. The Florida Symposium on Dinosaur Bird Evolution. Publications in Paleontology No. 2, Graves Museum of Archaeology and Natural History. 13.
Chure, Fiorillo and Jacobsen, 2000. Prey bone utilization by predatory dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of North America, with comments on prey bone use by dinosaurs throughout the Mesozoic. Gaia. 15, 227-232.
Hartman, DML 2000. http://dml.cmnh.org/2000Oct/msg00066.html
Loewen and Sampson, 2000. Femoral ontogeny in Allosaurus fragilis (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) from the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 54A.
Rayfield, 2000. Allosaurus fragilis: Mechanical behavior of the skull and implications for feeding strategy. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 20(3), 63A.
Breithaupt, 2001. The case of "Big Al" the Allosaurus: A study in paleodetective partnerships. In Santucci and McClelland (Eds.). Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference. 95-106.
Chure, 2001a. On the type and referred material of Laelaps trihedrodon Cope 1877 (Dinosauria: Theropoda). In Tanke and Carpenter (eds.). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, Indiana. 10-18.
Chure, 2001b. The wrist of Allosaurus (Saurischia: Theropoda), with observations on the carpus in theropods. In Gauthier and Gall (eds.). New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom. Peabody Museum of Natural History. 283-300.
Rayfield, Norman, Horner, Horner, Smith, Thomason and Upchurch, 2001. Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature. 409, 1033-1037.
Smith and Lisak, 2001. An unusual specimen of Allosaurus from Southeastern Utah. Brigham Young University Geology Studies. 46, 93-98.
Pickering, DML 2002. http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Nov/msg00442.html [contained in Headden's email, as Pickering's original is lost]
Hanna, 2002. Multiple injury and infection in a sub-adult theropod dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis with comparisons to allosaur pathology in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry collection. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22(1), 76-90.
Antunes and Mateus, 2003. Dinosaurs of Portugal. Comptes Rendus Palevol. 2, 77-95.
Bader, 2003. The local flora and fauna of a site in the Upper Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Northeastern Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23(3), 30A-31A.
Foster, 2003. Paleoecological analysis of the vertebrate fauna of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Rocky Mountain region, U.S.A.. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 23, 1-95.
Glut, 2003. Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia. Supplement 3. McFarland Press. 726 pp.
Heckert, Spielmann, Lucas, Altenberg and Russell, 2003. An Upper Jurassic theropod dinosaur from the Section 19 mine, Morrison Formation, Grants uranium district. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 54th Field Conference. 309-314.
Levin and Gurney, 2003. Dinosaur family values. Discover. 24(6), 34-41.
Pinegar, Loewen, Cloward, Hunter and Weege, 2003. A juvenile allosaur with preserved integument from the basal Morrison Formation of Central Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23(3), 87A-88A.
Baziak and Loewen, 2004. Intraspecific variation and ontogeny in cranial elements of Allosaurus fragilis from the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd dinosaur quarry of Central Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(3), 205A.
Goodchild Drake, 2004. A new specimen of Allosaurus from north-central Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(3), 138A.
Loewen, 2004. Variation and stratigraphic distribution of Allosaurus within the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 36(5), 524.
Olshevsky, 2004 online. https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/paleo_bio_dinosaur_ontology/conversations/messages/6655
Pirolli, 2004. Identification of an allosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Carbon County, Montana. Senior thesis. University of Pennsylvania. 64 pp.
Schumacher and Liggett, 2004. The dinosaurs of Picket Wire Canyonlands, a glimpse into the Morrison basin of southeastern Colorado. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24(3), 114A.
Snively, Russell and Powell, 2004. Evolutionary morphology of the coelurosaurian arctometatarsus: Descriptive, morphometric and phylogenetic approaches. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 142, 525-553.
Williams, 2004 online. https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/paleo_bio_dinosaur_ontology/conversations/messages/6646
Carpenter, Sanders, McWhinney and Wood, 2005. Evidence for predator-prey relationships, examples for Allosaurus and Stegosaurus. In Carpenter (ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. 325-350.
Foster, 2005. Evidence of size-classes and scavenging in the theropod Allosaurus fragilis at the Mygatt-Moore Quarry (Late Jurassic), Rabbit Valley, Colorado. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 59A.
Goodchild Drake, 2005. A preliminary analysis of cranial suture variation in Allosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 64A-65A.
Hunter and Breithaupt, 2005. Rising from the dust: An Allosaurus' journey to the 21st century. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 72A-73A.
Lee, Bybee and Lamm, 2005. Ontogenetic histology of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda): Assessing growth trajectory and evolution of ontogenetic limb allometry. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25(3), 82A-83A.
Rauhut and Fechner, 2005. Early development of the facial region in a non-avian theropod dinosaur. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 272, 1179-1183.
Rothschild and Tanke, 2005. Theropod paleopathology, state-of-the-art review. In Carpenter (ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. 351-365.
Smith, Vann and Dodson, 2005. Dental morphology and variation in theropod dinosaurs: Implications for the taxonomic identification of isolated teeth. The Anatomical Record Part A. 285A, 699-736.
Therrien, Hunderson and Ruff, 2005. Biomechanical models of theropod mandibles and implications for feeding behavior. In Carpenter (ed.). The Carnivorous Dinosaurs. 179-237.
Bybee, Lee and Lamm, 2006. Sizing the Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: Assessing growth strategy and evolution of ontogenetic scaling of limbs. Journal of Morphology. 267(3), 347-59.
Dangerfield, Britt and Scheetz, 2006. Allosaurus and other theropods of the Dry Mesa quarry (Upper Jurassic, Morrison Formation), Colorado. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 54A.
Foster and Chure, 2006. Hindlimb allometry in the Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus, with comments on its abundance and distribution. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36, 119-122.
Malafaia, Dantas, Ortega, Escaso, Gasulla, Ribeiro, Barriga, Gromicho, García-Oliva, Ramalheiro, Santamaría, Pimentel, Moniz and Galopim de Carvalho, 2006. Análisis preliminar de la diversidad faunística en el yacimiento de Andrés (Jurásico Superior. Pombal, Portugal). IV EJIP Salamanca, abstract. 91-92.
Mateus, Walen and Antunes, 2006. The large theropod fauna of the Lourinha Formation (Portugal) and its similarity to the Morrison Formation, with a description of a new species of Allosaurus. In Foster and Lucas (eds.). Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 36, 123-129.
Wahl, 2006. Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of a new small maniraptoran from the Upper Jurassic of Wyoming. MS Thesis, Fort Hays State University.
Werning, Lee and Bybee, 2006. Endosteally derived tissues in dinosaurs and the evolution of medullary bone. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26(3), 137A.
Bates, 2007. Dynamic simulations of theropod dinosaur (Allosaurus fragilis) locomotion. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 45A.
Levitt, 2007. Preliminary report on the vertebrates of the Westphal quarry, Wyoming (Morrison Formation: Late Jurassic), with special attention to the hypsilophodontid material. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 105A.
Malafaia, Dantas, Ortega and Escaso, 2007. Nuevos restos de Allosaurus fragilis (Theropoda: Carnosauria) del yacimiento de Andres (Jurasico Superior; centro-oeste de Portugal). Cantera Paleontologica. 255-271.
Masters, 2007. Allosaurus humerus morphology: Function or phylogeny? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27(3), 114A.
Brandau, Loewen, Farke and Baziak, 2008. Cranial variation in the Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28(3), 55A-56A.
Bates, Falkingham, Breithaupt, Hodgetts, Sellers and Manning, 2009. How big was 'Big Al'? Quantifying the effect of soft tissue and osteological unknowns on mass predictions for Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda). Palaeontologia Electronica. 12(3), 14A.
Loewen, 2009. Functional shifts during growth in the Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus: The implications of ontogenetic variation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 136A.
Malafaia, Ortega, Escaso, Dantas and Gasulla, 2009. Allosaurus fragilis from the Portuguese Upper Jurassic. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 140A-141A.
Malafaia, Ortega, Escaso, Silva, Ramalheiro, Dantas, Moniz and Barriga, 2009. A preliminary account of a new Allosaurus individual from the Lourinhã Group (Upper Jurassic of Torres Vedras, Portugal). Actas de las IV Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontología de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. 243-251.
Mathews, Williams, Bonnan and Henderson, 2009. The Hanksville-Burpee Quarry: New insights into a sauropod dominated bonebed in the Morrison Formation of Eastern Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 144A.
Tucker, 2009. Geology and paleontology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison and Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formations along the Eastern flank of the Bighorn Mountains, Northeastern Wyoming. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3), 193A.
Agnolin, Ezcurra, Pais and Salisbury, 2010. A reappraisal of the Cretaceous non-avian dinosaur faunas from Australia and New Zealand: Evidence for their Gondwanan affinities. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 8, 257-300.
Demirjian, 2010. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(4), 332.
Galiano and Albersdorfer, 2010. A new basal diplodocid species, Amphicoelias brontodiplodocus from the Morrison Formation, Big Horn Basin, Wyoming, with taxonomic reevaluation of Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and other genera. Dinosauria International Report, September 2010. Dinosauria International, LLC, Wyoming. 41 pp.
Kirkland, 2010. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(2), 178-178.
Loewen and Chure, 2010. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(3), 255-256.
Malafaia, Ortega, Escaso, Dantas, Pimentel, Gasulla, Ribeiro, Barriga and Sanz, 2010. Vertebrate fauna at the Allosaurus fossil-site of Andrés (Upper Jurassic), Pombal, Portugal. Journal of Iberian Geology. 36(2), 193-204.
Paul and Carpenter, 2010. Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 67(1), 53-56.
Birkemeier, 2011. Neurocentral suture closure in Allosaurus (Saurischia: Theropoda): Sequence and timing. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 72.
Demirjian, 2011. Comment on the proposed conservation of usage of Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda) by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 68(1), 72.
Eddy and Clarke, 2011. New information on the cranial anatomy of Acrocanthosaurus atokensis and its implications for the phylogeny of Allosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda). PLoS ONE. 6(3), e17932.
McDonald, 2011. The taxonomy of species assigned to Camptosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda). Zootaxa. 2783, 52-68.
Rauhut, 2011. Theropod dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology. 86, 195-239.
Testin, Tucker, Miyashita and Holtz, 2011. Dental morphology of Allosaurus fragilis (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Western North America: Is dentition more indicative of taxonomy or feeding niche? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2011, 203.
Snively, Cotton, Ridgely and Witmer, 2012. Feeding motions in Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda): Multibody dynamics of the cervicocephalic apparatus suggests rapid lateral strikes but sagittal prey dismemberment. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2012, 175.
Bykowski, 2013. Assessing the potential for ontogenetic ecomorphology in theropods: A case study using Allosaurus fragilis from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 98.
Carrano, Mateus and Mitchell, 2013. First definitive association between embryonic Allosaurus bones and Prismatoolithus eggs in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, Wyoming, US). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 101.
Evers, Foth, Rauhut, Pabst and Mateus, 2013. Traumatic pathologies in the postcranium of an adult Allosaurus specimen from the Morrison Formation of the Howe Quarry, Wyoming, U.S.A. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2013, 124.
Dalman, 2014a. Osteology of a large allosauroid theropod from the Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation of Colorado, USA. Volumina Jurassica. 12(2), 159-179.
Dalman, 2014b. New data on small theropod dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Como Bluff, Wyoming, USA. Volumina Jurassica. 12(2), 181-196.
Schimelfening, Woodruff and Norden, 2014. description of a lower Morrison Formation dinosaur quarry from South-Western Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts 2014, 223.
Carpenter and Paul, 2015. Comment on Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 (Dinosauria, Theropoda): Proposed conservation of usage by designation of a neotype for its type species Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 72(1), 79-80.
Evers, Rauhut, Milner, McFeeters and Allain, 2015. A reappraisal of the morphology and systematic position of the theropod dinosaur Sigilmassasaurus from the "middle" Cretaceous of Morocco. PeerJ. 3:e1323.
Galton, Carpenter and Dalman, 2015. The holotype pes of the Morrison dinosaur Camptonotus amplus Marsh, 1879 (Upper Jurassic, western USA) - Is it Camptosaurus, Sauropoda or Allosaurus? Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 275(3), 317-335.